American dog violet

(Viola labradorica)

Conservation Status
American dog violet
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FAC - Facultative

     
  Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

     
           
 
Description
 
 

American dog violet is a ½ to 8 tall, erect to drooping, perennial forb that rises on several clustered stems from an oblique, occasionally branched rhizome. It forms clumps.

The stems are erect to drooping, leafy, and usually hairy. Leaves and flowers appear on the same stem.

Basal leaves are large and on long stalks. They are thin, pale green, hairless, and kidney-shaped to roundish. They are rounded or blunt at the tip and heart-shaped at the base. The basal lobes are widely open, not overlapping. The margins have rounded teeth. Stem leaves are similar, smaller, alternate, round, to 1½ wide, broadly-angled at the tip, and heart-shaped at the base.

The inflorescence is numerous single flowers on slender, 2 to 3 long stalks rising from the leaf axils. The long-stalked flowers are held above the leaves. There are small, broadly lance-shaped, stipules at the base of the flower stalks. The stipules are bristly for more than half of their length.

The flowers are ½ to ¾ wide. There are 5 petals in an arrangement typical of violets—two upper, two lateral, and a broad lower lip. The petals are light blue to pale violet, rarely white. The lateral and lower petals are pale or whitish with dark veins near the center. The lower petal has a to 3 16 long spur at the base that curls upward behind the flower. The lateral petals have tufts of white hair near the center (bearded). The plant produces flowers when it is only ½ in height.

The fruit is an elliptical, to 3 16 long capsule with light brown seeds. When the plant is in fruit the stipules are dry and translucent.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

½ to 8

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Light blue to pale violet

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Long-spurred violet (Viola rostrata) has a longer spur, ¼ to ½ long. The lateral petals are not bearded.

Great-spurred violet (Viola selkirkii) leaves and flowers rise from the ground on separate stalks. The basal lobes of the leaves are narrowly open, sometimes overlapping. The spur is rounded, blunt and tends to be larger, to ¼ long. The lateral petals are not bearded.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry to moderate moisture. Woods, meadows. Full sun to shade.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to August

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  5/20/2018      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Malpighiales (nances, willows, and allies)  
 

Family

Violaceae (violet)  
  Subfamily Violoideae  
  Tribe Violeae  
  Genus Viola (violet)  
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Viola adunca var. minor

Viola conspersa

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

alpine violet

American dog violet

dog violet

early blue violet

Labrador violet

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Bearded

Bearing one or more tufts of hairs.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Stipule

A small, leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf stalk or flower stalk.

       
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Clump

  American dog violet   American dog violet
       

Plant

  American dog violet   American dog violet
       
  American dog violet    
       

Flower

  American dog violet   American dog violet
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Alpine Violet (American Dog Violet) (Viola labradorica)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Alpine Violet (American Dog Violet) (Viola labradorica)  

 

slideshow

       
 
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Other Videos
 
  Viola labradorica
wander van laar
 
   
 
About

Published on Mar 30, 2014

No description available.

   
       

 

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