American dog violet

(Viola labradorica)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

American dog violet

 

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FAC - Facultative

Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

Nativity

Native

 
Occurrence

 

 
Habitat

Dry to moderate moisture. Woods, meadows. Full sun to shade.

Flowering

June to August

     
Flower Color

Light blue to pale violet

     
Height

½ to 8

     
 
Identification

This is a ½ to 8 tall, erect to drooping, perennial forb that rises on several clustered stems from an oblique, occasionally branched rhizome. It forms clumps.

The stems are erect to drooping, leafy, and usually hairy. Leaves and flowers appear on the same stem.

Basal leaves are large and on long stalks. They are thin, pale green, hairless, and kidney-shaped to roundish. They are rounded or blunt at the tip and heart-shaped at the base. The basal lobes are widely open, not overlapping. The margins have rounded teeth. Stem leaves are similar, smaller, alternate, round, to 1½ wide, broadly-angled at the tip, and heart-shaped at the base.

The inflorescence is numerous single flowers on slender, 2 to 3 long stalks rising from the leaf axils. The long-stalked flowers are held above the leaves. There are small, broadly lance-shaped, stipules at the base of the flower stalks. The stipules are bristly for more than half of their length.

The flowers are ½ to ¾ wide. There are 5 petals in an arrangement typical of violets—two upper, two lateral, and a broad lower lip. The petals are light blue to pale violet, rarely white. The lateral and lower petals are pale or whitish with dark veins near the center. The lower petal has a to 3 16 long spur at the base that curls upward behind the flower. The lateral petals have tufts of white hair near the center (bearded). The plant produces flowers when it is only ½ in height.

The fruit is an elliptical, to 3 16 long capsule with light brown seeds. When the plant is in fruit the stipules are dry and translucent.

 
Similar
Species

Long-spurred violet (Viola rostrata) has a longer spur, ¼ to ½ long. The lateral petals are not bearded.

Great-spurred violet (Viola selkirkii) leaves and flowers rise from the ground on separate stalks. The basal lobes of the leaves are narrowly open, sometimes overlapping. The spur is rounded, blunt and tends to be larger, to ¼ long. The lateral petals are not bearded.

 
Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.
 
Comments

Taxonomy
Some sources, including the Minnesota DNR, classify this species as Viola conspersa. However, most authoritative plant taxonomy resources, including ITIS37, GRIN38, NCBI34, GBIF29, NatureServe72, and Tropicos, consider that a synonym and use the name Viola labradorica. The Plant List36, as it often does, lists both names as valid. No authoritative taxonomic resource lists Viola labradorica as a synonym for Viola conspersa.

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Violaceae (violet)

 

Subfamily:

Violoideae

 

Tribe:

Violeae

 
Synonyms

Viola adunca var. minor

Viola conspersa

 
Common
Names

alpine violet

American dog violet

dog violet

early blue violet

Labrador violet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Bearded

Bearing one or more tufts of hairs.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Stipule

A small, leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf stalk or flower stalk.

       
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Clump

  American dog violet   American dog violet
       

Plant

  American dog violet   American dog violet
       
  American dog violet    
       

Flower

  American dog violet   American dog violet
       
       

 

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Slideshows
   
  Alpine Violet (American Dog Violet) (Viola labradorica)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Alpine Violet (American Dog Violet) (Viola labradorica)  

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Viola labradorica
wander van laar
 
   
 
About

Published on Mar 30, 2014

No description available.

   
       

 

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