hound’s tongue

(Cynoglossum officinale)

Conservation Status
hound’s tongue
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

UPL - Obligate upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Hound’s tongue is a 8 to 48 tall, erect, biennial forb rising from a thick, black, branching taproot.

In the first year it forms a rosette of basal leaves on long leaf stalks. The leaves are dark green, 4 to 12 long, to 2 wide, elliptical, and covered with short, soft hairs. A single root system can produce 1 or several rosettes.

In the second year the plant sends up a single 8 to 48 tall flower stem from the center of the rosette. The stem branches in the upper half. There are leaves from the bottom to the top of the stem.

The stem leaves are alternate and untoothed. The leaves are on leaf stalks, which become progressively shorter as they ascend the stem. The upper leaves are attached to the stem without leaf stalks, and may clasp the stem. The leaves become progressively smaller as they ascend the stem. The upper and lower surfaces are covered with short, soft hairs.

The inflorescence is many raceme-like, crowded clusters rising from the upper leaf axils or on short branches at the top of the stem. The clusters may have as many as 35 flowers, but they usually have no more than 10.

The flowers are ¼ to wide and have 5 maroon or red petals. The petals are fused at the base into a short, funnel-shaped tube. The tips are rounded and overlapping.

The fruit consists of 4 nutlets, each long, covered with short, barbed prickles.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

8 to 48

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Maroon to red

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Northern wild comfrey (Cynoglossum virginianum var. boreale) has stem leaves only on the lower half of the stem. The inflorescence is 1 to 4 (usually 3) racemes branching at the end of a stalk that terminates the central stem. The flowers are light blue.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Woods, disturbed sites.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to July

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 28.

 
  6/13/2017      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to Europe and Asia. Introduced and naturalized in North America.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Boraginales  
 

Family

Boraginaceae (borage)  
  Subfamily Cynoglossoideae  
  Tribe Cynoglosseae  
 

Genus

Cynoglossum (hound’s tongue)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

common houndstongue

gypsy-flower

gypsyflower

hound’s tongue

houndstongue

hound’s-tongue

rats-and-mice

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Clasping

Describing a leaf that wholly or partly surrounds the stem but does not fuse at the base.

 

Oblong

Two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

 

Raceme

An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.

       
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Plant

  hound’s tongue   hound’s tongue
       
  hound’s tongue   hound’s tongue
       
  hound’s tongue   hound’s tongue
       
  hound’s tongue    
       

Inflorescence

  hound’s tongue   hound’s tongue
       
  hound’s tongue   hound’s tongue
       

Flowers

  hound’s tongue   hound’s tongue
       
  hound’s tongue    
       

Basal Leaves

  hound’s tongue   hound’s tongue
       

Infructescence

  hound’s tongue   hound’s tongue
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Cynoglossum officinale
Aina WestCoast
 
   
 
About

Published on May 11, 2013

· Plants of future (http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cynoglossum+officinale)

· GRIN - Taxonomic information (http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?3284)

 
     

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Hounds' Tongue Cynoglossum officinale
Craig D.
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on May 5, 2010

Alternate leaves forming a rosette 1st. year sending up a flowering stalk in the 2nd year. The prickly fruits are ovate and flat looking like little hound's tongues(supposedly) that stick to anything especially your socks! Regarded as a noxious weed although closely related to comfrey and been used interchangebly so. Houndstongue is used in the medical industry as an analgesic.

   
       
  Houndstongue (Cynoglossum Officinale) / Gypsy Flower - 2012-05-30
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on May 31, 2012

Cynoglossum officinale (houndstongue, houndstooth,dog's tongue, gypsy flower, and rats and mice due to its smell) is a herbaceous plant of the family Boraginaceae

---------------
De veldhondstong (Cynoglossum officinale) is een tot 80 cm hoge, tweejarige plant uit de ruwbladigenfamilie (Boraginaceae)

   
       
  Environmental Laboratory - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Environmental Laboratory USACE
 
   
 
About

Published on Feb 15, 2013

Cynoglossum officinale - Houndstongue

   
       

 

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