redwhisker clammyweed

(Polanisia dodecandra ssp. dodecandra)

Conservation Status
redwhisker clammyweed
Photo by Luciearl
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

UPL - Obligate upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

UPL - Obligate upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Redwhisker clammyweed is an erect, annual, 4 to 16 tall forb that rises usually on a single stem from a taproot. The stem, foliage, and fruit are covered with sticky glandular hairs. Touching them leaves the fingers feeling “clammy”. This is the feature that gives the genus its common name.

The stem is round, green to reddish-purple, sparsely to moderately branched, and covered with two types of hairs. It is densely covered with minute, spreading, gland-tipped hairs, and moderately to densely covered with longer, matted hairs that are often also gland-tipped. It is sticky to the touch and has a disagreeable odor when crushed.

The leaves are alternate. Lower and middle leaves are on to long leaf stalks (petioles) and are divided into three leaflets (ternately compound). Upper leaves are undivided and are on shorter stalks or are nearly stalkless. The petioles are green to purple and are densely covered with gland-tipped hairs. At the base of each petiole there is an inconspicuous, hair-like, less than 1 32 long appendage (stipule). The stipules whither quickly and may not be visible except on very young leaves.

The leaflets are narrowly egg-shaped or inversely lance-shaped, to 1 long, and to ½ wide. They are narrowed or tapered at the base and usually bluntly pointed, sometimes sharply pointed, at the tip. The upper and lower surfaces are covered with gland-tipped hairs. The margins are untoothed.

The inflorescence is an unbranched, flat-topped, usually dense cluster (raceme) of many flowers at the end of each stem. The raceme on the central stem can be up to 8 long, one-half the length of the stem. Racemes on side stems are shorter. The flowers are on green to purple, 3 16 to ¾ long stalks (pedicels). Each pedicel is subtended by a lance-shaped to egg-shaped, 5 16 to long, 1 16to 3 16 wide modified leaf (bract).

Each flower is about ¼ long and bilaterally symmetrical, having only one plane of symmetry. There are 4 sepals, 4 petals, 6 to 10 stamens, and 1 style. The sepals are purple, oblong, 1 16 to long, 1 32 to 1 16 wide, and fused at the base. The petals are usually white, sometimes pinkish. They are spatula-shaped, to ¼ long, 1 16 to wide, and narrowed to a stalk-like, 1 32 to long base. The upper pair of petals are longer than the lower pair. The upper pair and usually the lower pair are shallowly and broadly notched at the tip. The stamens have purple, 3 16 to long stalks (filaments) and purple, 1 32 long anthers. They are unequal in size because they mature at different rates. At maturity, they are as long or only slightly longer than the upper petals. They wither away after fertilization. The pistil is borne on a short, 1 16to 5 16 long, stalk-like extension (gynophore) of the the receptacle. The gynophore does not elongate as the fruit matures. The style is 1 32 to long. The stigma is purple.

The flowers bloom from the bottom up. The raceme continues to elongate as fruits develop, eventually becoming 4 to 11 ¾ long. The fruit is a pea-like, oblong, slender, cylinder-shaped, 1 to 2 long, to ¼ wide capsule with 20 to 65 seeds. The capsule is green at first, turning brown as it matures. It is inflated and densely covered with sticky glandular hairs. It is held erect or strongly ascending. The style drops off as the fruit forms.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

4 to 16

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Sandyseed clammyweed (Polanisia dodecandra ssp. trachysperma) is a larger plant, 12 to 24 tall. The leaves are larger and on much longer petioles. The flowers are larger and have more stamens. Mature stamens are about twice as long as the upper petals. The fruits are slightly larger. It is the western subspecies and mostly restricted to the western half of the state.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moderately moist to dry. River banks, streamsides, roadsides, railroads, and other disturbed sites. Gravelly or sandy soil. Full sun.

 
     
 
Ecology
 
 

Flowering

 
  July to September  
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

4, 24, 28, 29, 30.

 
  8/3/2018      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Subclass Rosidae  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Brassicales (mustards, capers, and allies)  
 

Family

Cleomaceae (spider flower)  
 

Genus

Polanisia (clammyweed)  
  Species Polanisia dodecandra (roughseed clammyweed)  
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Polanisia graveolens

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

red-whisker clammyweed

redwhisker clammyweed

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

Gynophore

A long or short, stalk-like extension of the receptacle on some flowers on which the pistil is borne.

 

Pedicel

In plants: the stalk of a single flower in a cluster of flowers. In Hymenoptera and Araneae: the narrow stalk connecting the thorax to the abdomen.

 

Petiole

The stalk of a leaf blade or compound leaf that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

 

Raceme

An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.

 

Receptacle

The thickened, upper part of a flower stalk to which flowers or flower parts are attached. In composite flowers, the part on which the florets are borne. In accessory fruits the receptacle gives rise to the edible part of the fruit.

 

Stipule

A small, leaf-like, scale-like, glandular, or rarely spiny appendage found at the base of a leaf stalk, usually occurring in pairs and usually dropping soon.

 

Ternate

Refers to leaves that are divided into three leaflets or sections.

       
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Luciearl
       

Red-whiskered Clammyweed

I didn't see this on the list. A new one to me. Growing out of the sand by the side of the road in road construction. One could easily walk by it, but up close it is quite pretty.

  redwhisker clammyweed   redwhisker clammyweed
       
  redwhisker clammyweed    
       
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Luciearl
7/20/2018

Location: Lake Shore, MN

I didn't see this on the list. A new one to me. Growing out of the sand by the side of the road in road construction. One could easily walk by it, but up close it is quite pretty.

redwhisker clammyweed


     
     
 
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Created: 8/4/2018

Last Updated:

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