eastern black nightshade

(Solanum emulans)

Conservation Status
eastern black nightshade
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N3N5 - Vulnerable to Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Weed Status
   
 

County noxious weed in Steele and Waseca Counties. (MDA approved with restrictions due to it being a native species.)

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Eastern black nightshade is a 6 to 24 tall, erect, annual forb that rises from a slender taproot.

The stems are erect and branching and are covered with short, incurved hairs, especially near the top.

The leaves are alternate, egg-shaped to triangular, and ¾ to 3 long, to 2 wide, on long, slender leaf stalks. The margins have 2 to 5 irregular, blunt teeth on the lower half, no teeth on the upper half. There are scattered, short, incurved hairs on the upper and lower surfaces, especially on the lower surface. The underside is green when young, turning purplish or purple with age.

The inflorescence is an umbrella-shaped cluster of 3 to 10 flowers on an ascending stalk (peduncle) up to 1 long arising from the upper portion of the stem, not from leaf axils, and not at the end of the stem.

The individual flowers are on nodding, closely-clustered stalks that originate at more or less the same point at the end of the peduncle. The peduncle and the individual flower stalks are covered with short, incurved hairs. The flowers are from less than ¼ to wide. There are 5 white petals that are widely spreading, eventually curving backward, and form no tube at the base. There are 5 stamens with large yellow anthers projecting from the center of the petals. The anthers converge around the style but are not actually fused together.

The fruit is a berry, green and mottled when young, black or purplish black when ripe. At the base of the fruit the sepals (calyx) has 5 bluntly triangular lobes that are spreading and do not cup the berry.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

6 to 24

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Common lamb’s-quarters (Chenopodium album) leaves are whitish on the underside, not purplish.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Rocky and dry open woods, thickets, openings, lake shores. Disturbed and cultivated areas.

 
     
 
Ecology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to October

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 

Toxicity

 
 

The leaves and immature berries are poisonous. Ripe berries are not poisonous but should not be eaten.

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28, 29, 30.

 
  2/7/2023      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Solanales (nightshades, bindweeds, gooseweeds, and allies)  
 

Family

Solanaceae (nightshade)  
  Subfamily Solanoideae (nightshades and allies)  
  Tribe Solaneae (nightshades and jaltomatas)  
 

Genus

Solanum (nightshades)  
  Subgenus Solanum  
  Section Solanum  
       
 

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the black nightshade in eastern North America was classified as a single widespread and highly variable species Solanum nigrum. Later it was classified (by some) as Solanum ptychanthum, occurring throughout eastern North America. More recently, it was classified as Solanum emulans, and Solanum ptychanthum is treated as a synonym of Solanum americanum, a species occurring in the United States only in the extreme south and on the West Coast.

Today (2023) there is widespread agreement that Solanum nigrum is the wrong name, but there is little agreement on the correct name.

  • BONAP, USDA PLANTS, ITIS, and NCBI use the name Solanum ptychanthum.
  • GRIN, World Flora Online, and iNaturalist use the name Solanum emulans.
  • GBIF and Plants of the World Online use the name Solanum alatum.
  • MNTaxa and the Minnesota Biodiversity Atlas use the name Solanum nigurm var. virginicum.
 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Solanum alatum

Solanum americanum (misapplied)

Solanum nigrum (misapplied)

Solanum nigurm var. virginicum

Solanum ptycanthum (misapplied misspelling)

Solanum ptychanthum (misapplied)

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

black nightshade

common nightshade

deadly nightshade

nightshade

eastern black nightshade

eastern nightshade

purple nightshade

small-flowered nightshade

West Indian nightshade

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.

 

Peduncle

The stalk of a single flower or flower cluster.

 
 
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MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
 

Inflorescence

 
    eastern black nightshade   eastern black nightshade  
           
    eastern black nightshade      
           
 

Leaves

 
    eastern black nightshade   eastern black nightshade  
           
    eastern black nightshade   eastern black nightshade  
           
 

Stem

 
    eastern black nightshade      
           
 

Infructescence

 
    eastern black nightshade   eastern black nightshade  

 

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Other Videos
 
  Nightshade Weeds ID1
crop4240
 
   
 
About

Published on Oct 29, 2012

Common Name: Eastern Black Nightshade Latin Name: Solanum ptychantum (L.)

   
  Black Nightshade Harvest
karlweir
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Dec 4, 2011

Harvesting Black Nightshade from the garden. When to harvest and why.

   
  European Black Nightshade (Solanum Nigrum) - 2012-09-02
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 5, 2012

Solanum nigrum (European Black Nightshade or locally just "black nightshade", Duscle, Garden Nightshade, Hound's Berry, Petty Morel, Wonder Berry, Small-fruited black nightshade or popolo) is a species in the Solanum genus.

-----------------
De zwarte nachtschade (Solanum nigrum) is een algemeen voorkomende tot 40 cm hoge, eenjarige plant uit de nachtschadefamilie (Solanaceae).

   
  Weed of the Week #651-Black Nightshade (Air Date 9/26/10)
AgPhD
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Oct 1, 2010

Nasty to deal with at harvest, it's our Weed of the Week, Black Nightshade.

   
  Eastern Nightshade Wild Plant
wayne hu
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 7, 2013

This is an weed that grown wildly in my yard. It is a poisonous plant that can cause irritation of digest system if ingested. It belongs to Nightshade family just like tomatoes do.

   

 

Camcorder

 
 
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