prairie sunflower

(Helianthus petiolaris ssp. petiolaris)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

prairie sunflower

NatureServe

N3N5 - Vulnerable to Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Dry. Prairies, bluff tops, railroads, roadsides, and open, disturbed areas. Full sun. Sandy soil.

Flowering

June to September

     
Flower Color

Yellow ray florets, reddish-brown to purple disk florets

     
Height

16 to 40

     
 
Identification

This is an erect, annual forb that rises on a single stem from a taproot. It can be from 16 to 78 tall, though in Minnesota it is seldom more than 40 in height.

The stems are erect, relatively stout, and moderately covered with short, stiff, ascending hairs.

There are usually 8 to 25 alternate leaves. Sometimes the leaves near the base of the stem are opposite. The larger leaves are leaf stalks that are usually ¾ to 1½ long, but may be as much as 4 long.

The leaf blades are lance-shaped to triangular egg-shaped, and flat, not folded longitudinally. They are 2¾ to 7 long and ¾ to 4 wide, 2 to 5 times as long as wide. They are slightly heart-shaped, wedge-shaped, or squared off at the base, and taper to a sharp point at the tip. The upper surface is usually green, sometimes bluish-green, and rough to the touch with minute, straight, appressed hairs. The lower surface is similar, but may also be sparsely covered with yellow glands. The margins are untoothed or finely, irregularly toothed. The leaves have 3 main veins, a midvein and a pair of lateral veins that branch off the main vein at the base of the blade and arch upward.

The inflorescence is rarely a solitary head, usually an open, branched cluster of 2 to 5 flower heads at the end of the stem. The flower heads are on stalks that are 1½ to 6 long or longer. The stalks usually do not have a leafy bract subtending the flower head.

The whorl of bracts at the base of the flower head (involucre) is to 1 in diameter. The bracts of the involucre are lance-shaped to narrowly egg-shaped and taper to a sharply-pointed tip. The tips of the bracts are sometimes loosely ascending, but more often are spreading and then curved upwards at the tip.

The flower heads are 1½ to 2½ wide, the disk is to 1 in diameter. There are 10 to 30 yellow ray florets and 50 to 100 or more reddish-brown to purple disk florets.

The fruit is an achene.

 
Similar
Species

See the Sunflowers ID Filter for a spreadsheet to aid identification of this and similar species.

 
Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.
 
Comments

 

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Asteraceae (aster)

 

Subfamily:

Asteroideae

 

Supertribe:

Helianthodae

 

Tribe:

Heliantheae (sunflower)

 
Synonyms

 

 
Common
Names

Kansas sunflower

petioled sunflower

plains sunflower

prairie sunflower

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

Involucre

A whorl of bracts beneath or surrounding a flower or flower cluster.

       
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Plant

  prairie sunflower   prairie sunflower
       

Flower Head

  prairie sunflower   prairie sunflower
       
  prairie sunflower   prairie sunflower
       

Involucre

  prairie sunflower   prairie sunflower
       
  prairie sunflower    
       

Leaves

  prairie sunflower   prairie sunflower
       
  prairie sunflower   prairie sunflower
       

Stem

  prairie sunflower   prairie sunflower
       
  prairie sunflower    
       
       

 

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  Helianthus petiolaris
Matt Lavin
 
  Helianthus petiolaris  
 
About

Native taprooted annuals, stems up to about 0.5 m tall, leaves essentially lanceolate, involucral bracts lanceolate, receptacle chaffy, all receptacle bracts with long white hairs at tip, pappus of two deciduous scales, flowering during the late season, common in disturbed sites from low to middle elevations, especially abundant along roadsides.

 
     

 

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