marijuana

(Cannabis sativa)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

marijuana

NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

Minnesota

not listed

Weed Status

PS – State prohibited weed seed

Nativity

Native to south-central Asia. Introduced, widely cultivated, and widely naturalized.

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Fence rows, pastures, disturbed sites

Flowering

June to October

Flower Color

Green

     
Height

48 to 72

     

Identification

This is an erect, annual forb that rises from a long, branched taproot. It can be 8 to 108 tall, but is usually 48 to 72 in height.

The stems are erect, light green, stiff, angled, and unbranched or little branched. New stem growth is more or less hairy with appressed, ascending hairs, becoming hairless as it matures.

Lower and middle stem leaves are opposite, upper leaves are usually alternate. They are on ¾ to 2¾ long leaf stalks. They are palmately divided into usually 5, 7, or 9, sometimes 3 or 11 leaflets.

The leaflets are linear to narrowly lance-shaped, 13 16 to 5 long, to ¾ wide, tapered at the base, and tapered to a sharp point at the tip. The upper surface is dark green and is sparsely covered with bulbous-based hairs. The lower surface is pale or whitish green and is moderately to densely covered with appressed hairs and scattered, yellowish-brown, resinous gland dots. The margins are coarsely and sharply toothed.

Staminate (male) and pistillate (female) flowers are borne on separate plants. Staminate plants tend to be taller, less robust, and die soon after flowering. Pistillate are much leafier and persist until late fall.

The male inflorescence is short, branched clusters (panicles) at the end of the stem and rising from the upper leaf axils. The panicles have small clusters of flowers on nearly leafless branches. The male flower is about across. It has 5 lance- to egg-shaped sepals, 5 stamens with large anthers, and no petals.

The female inflorescence is small clusters of flowers on short, leafy spikes rising from the upper leaf axils. The female flower is about long. It has a single stamen, a branched style, and no petals.

The fruit is a 1 16 in diameter, nearly spherical achene. It is yellow to greenish brown and is mottled with purple.

 
Similar
Species

 


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 28.

Comments

Taxonomy
There are two subspecies of Canabis sativa; ssp. indica and ssp. sativa. Canabis indica is an invalid synonym of Canabis sativa ssp. indica. There are two varieties of Canabis sativa ssp. sativa; var. sativa and var. spontanea. A variety of a subspecies is referred to by dropping the subspecies from the name. Thus, Canabis sativa ssp. sativa var. sativa is referred to as Canabis sativa var. sativa. Both subspecies have been widely cultivated; Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa for its greater psychoactive effects, and Cannabis sativa ssp. indica for its sedative effects.

Some authorities recognize three Cannabis species; Cannabis sativa (Cannabis sativa var. sativa), Cannabis indica (Cannabis sativa ssp. indica), and Cannabis rudderale (Canabis sativa var. spontanea).


Taxonomy

Family:

Cannabaceae (hemp)

 
Subordinate Taxa

Cannabis sativa ssp. indica

Cannabis sativa var. sativa

Cannabis sativa var. spontanea

 
Synonyms

 

 
Common
Names

grass

hashish

hemp

marijuana

Mary Jane

pot

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Palmate

Similar to a hand. Having more than three lobes or leaflets that radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.

 

Panicle

A pyramidal inflorescence with a main stem and branches. Flowers on the lower, longer branches mature earlier than those on the shorter, upper ones.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

       

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Habitat

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Plant

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Inflorescence

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Leaves

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