marijuana

(Cannabis sativa var. sativa)

Conservation Status
marijuana
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Weed Status
     
 

PS – State prohibited weed seed

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Marijuana is an erect, annual forb that rises from a long, branched taproot. It can be 8 to 108 tall, but is usually 48 to 72 in height.

The stems are erect, light green, stiff, angled, and unbranched or little branched. New stem growth is more or less hairy with appressed, ascending hairs, becoming hairless as it matures.

Lower and middle stem leaves are opposite, upper leaves are usually alternate. They are on ¾ to 2¾ long leaf stalks. They are palmately divided into usually 5, 7, or 9, sometimes 3 or 11 leaflets.

The leaflets are linear to narrowly lance-shaped, 13 16 to 5 long, to ¾ wide, tapered at the base, and tapered to a sharp point at the tip. The upper surface is dark green and is sparsely covered with bulbous-based hairs. The lower surface is pale or whitish green and is moderately to densely covered with appressed hairs and scattered, yellowish-brown, resinous gland dots. The margins are coarsely and sharply toothed.

Staminate (male) and pistillate (female) flowers are borne on separate plants. Staminate plants tend to be taller, less robust, and die soon after flowering. Pistillate are much leafier and persist until late fall.

The male inflorescence is short, branched clusters (panicles) at the end of the stem and rising from the upper leaf axils. The panicles have small clusters of flowers on nearly leafless branches. The male flower is about across. It has 5 lance- to egg-shaped sepals, 5 stamens with large anthers, and no petals.

The female inflorescence is small clusters of flowers on short, leafy spikes rising from the upper leaf axils. The female flower is about long. It has a single stamen, a branched style, and no petals.

The fruit is a 1 16 in diameter, nearly spherical achene. It is yellow to greenish brown and is mottled with purple.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

48 to 72

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Green

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Fence rows, pastures, disturbed sites

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to October

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 28.

 
  7/13/2012      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to south-central Asia. Introduced, widely cultivated, and widely naturalized.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Rosales (roses, elms, figs, and allies)  
 

Family

Cannabaceae (hemp, hop, and hackberry)  
 

Genus

Cannabis (hemp)  
  Species Cannabis sativa (marijuana)  
  Subspecies Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa (marijuana)  
       
 

There are two subspecies of Canabis sativa; ssp. indica and ssp. sativa. Canabis indica is an invalid synonym of Canabis sativa ssp. indica. There are two varieties of Canabis sativa ssp. sativa; var. sativa and var. spontanea. A variety of a subspecies is referred to by dropping the subspecies from the name. Thus, Canabis sativa ssp. sativa var. sativa is referred to as Canabis sativa var. sativa. Both subspecies have been widely cultivated; Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa for its greater psychoactive effects, and Cannabis sativa ssp. indica for its sedative effects.

Some taxonomists recognize three Cannabis species; Cannabis sativa (Cannabis sativa var. sativa), Cannabis indica (Cannabis sativa ssp. indica), and Cannabis rudderale (Canabis sativa var. spontanea).

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

grass

hashish

hemp

marijuana

Mary Jane

pot

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Palmate

Similar to a hand. Having more than three lobes or leaflets that radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.

 

Panicle

A pyramidal inflorescence with a main stem and branches. Flowers on the lower, longer branches mature earlier than those on the shorter, upper ones.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

       
Visitor Photos
   

Share your photo of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more photos and, if you like, a caption.

       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Habitat

  marijuana   marijuana
       

Plant

  marijuana   marijuana
       
  marijuana    
       

Inflorescence

  marijuana   marijuana
       
  marijuana    
       

Leaves

  marijuana   marijuana
       
       

 

Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
 
     
     
     

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       

Share your video of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more videos or YouTube links and, if you like, a caption.

       
       
Other Videos
 
       
       
       
       

 

Camcorder


Last Updated:

About Us | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | © 2022 MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.