scouring rush horsetail

(Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine)

Conservation Status
scouring rush horsetail
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5? - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACW - Facultative wetland

     
  Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Scouring rush horsetail is an erect, evergreen, unbranched perennial that rises from rhizomes. It can be 8 to 60 tall, though in Minnesota it is usually 24 to 48 tall. It often forms dense colonies.

The stems are erect, to ½ in diameter, dark green, and hollow. They are normally unbranched, but may develop one or a few branches after injury, or in the second year. They have 14 to 50 fine, vertical ridges with silica deposits making them rough to the touch. They are evergreen, lasting more than one year. The central cavity is at least ¾ the diameter of the stem. The portion of the stem between the nodes is up to several inches near the bottom, becoming progressively shorter as they ascend the stem.

The leaves are reduced in size, fused together for most of their length, and appressed against the stem, forming a collar-like sheath around the nodes. The main sheaths are tan, grayish, or white, with a black band at both the base and the tip. They are wider than long, 3 16 to long, to ¾ wide, and appear squarish. At the tip of the sheath are 14 to 50 free, 3 16 long or less lobes appearing as tiny, black teeth. The teeth are jointed and may fall off at the joint at maturity, leaving just a dark rim on the sheath, but they often persist.

A solitary, spore-bearing cone is borne at the end of each fertile stem. The cone is to 1 long, circular in cross-section, and elliptic in long section. It ends with a small but conspicuous, abrupt, flexible point at the tip (apiculate). Infertile stems are similar to fertile stems but lack the terminal cone. The cone falls off after releasing spores.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

8 to 60

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Smooth scouring rush (Equisetum laevigatum) is a shorter plant, only reaching 12 to 36 tall. The stems are lighter green, smooth to the touch, and annual. The sheaths are light green and have a black band at the tip only, sometimes also the lowest ones with a black band at the base or black throughout. The teeth on the sheath fall off promptly at maturity. The cones are inconspicuously apiculate.

Variegated scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum ssp. variegatum), is a much shorter plant, only 4 to 18 tall. The stems are much thinner, 1 32 to 3 32 in diameter. The sheaths are green with a black band at the tip, and slightly flared outwards at the tip. There are 5 to 12 vertical ridges on the stem and the same number of teeth on the sheath. The teeth have conspicuous white margins. They are not jointed. The cone is shorter, long or less. It is found only in the upper third of the state.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist. Roadsides, woodlands, riverbanks, streambanks, lakeshores, and other moist or wet places.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Sporulation

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

The stems are unbranched or have few irregular branches. They are coated with an abrasive silica, and were used for scrubbing cooking pots. This, along with their rush-like appearance, gave rise to the common name “scouring rush”.

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  11/2/2018      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Polypodiophytina  
  Class Polypodiopsida (ferns)  
  Subclass Equisetidae (horsetails)  
 

Order

Equisetales (horsetails)  
 

Family

Equisetaceae (horsetails)  
 

Genus

Equisetum (horsetails)  
  Subgenus Hippochaete (scouring rushes)  
  Species Equisetum hyemale (tall scouring rush)  
       
 

There are 15 species of Equisetum, which is the only living genus in the family Equisetaceae, which is the only family in the order Equisetales, which is the only order in the class Equisetopsida. The history of Equisetum has been traced 300 million years to the Cretaceous period, and possibly to the Triassic period. That could make Equisetum the oldest living genus of vascular plants.

The genus Equisetum is divided into two subgenera, Equisetum and Hippochaete. Scouring rush horsetail is one of the eight species in the subgenus Hippochaete. Four of those eight species are found in North America. All four of those also occur in Minnesota.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Equisetum affine

Equisetum hyemale var. affine

Equisetum hyemale var. californicum

Equisetum hyemale var. pseudohyemale

Equisetum hyemale var. robustum

Equisetum praealtum

Equisetum praealtum var. affine

Equisetum prealta var. affinis

Equisetum robustum

Equisetum robustum var. affine

Hippochaete hyemalis

Hippochaete hyemalis ssp. affinis

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

common scouring rush

Dutch rush

rough Horsetail

scouring rush

scouring rush horsetail

scouringrush Horsetail

Scouring-rush

stout scouringrush

tall scouring rush

winter scouring rush

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Apiculate

Ending in a short, abrupt, flexible point.

 

Node

The small swelling of the stem from which one or more leaves, branches, or buds originate.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       
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Plant

  scouring rush horsetail   scouring rush horsetail
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Scouringrush Horsetail (Equisetum hyemale)
Bill Keim
 
  Scouringrush Horsetail (Equisetum hyemale)  

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       

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Other Videos
 
  Horsetail or Scouring Rush - Helpful Hints from Jas. Townsend and Son
Jas. Townsend and Son, Inc.
 
   
 
About

Published on Oct 14, 2013

An interesting episode on a useful plant that was popular in the 18th and 19th century. Make sure to check out our website at http://jas-townsend.com

   
       
  How to tell if your plant is a horsetail
newenglandwild's channel
 
   
 
About

Published on Jan 16, 2013

This video tells you how to see if your mystery plant is a horsetail or scouring rush -- a member of the genus Equisetum.

   
       
  Equisetum hyemale releases spores
Robert Klips
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 26, 2012

Scouring rush, Equisetum hyemale, which ought to be called "tube fern" because it is quite closely related to ferns, beares its spores in sporangia at the edges of hexagonal sporophylls that are arranged in a cone-like stobilus. Spore release and dispersal is aided by appendages called "elaters" that unfurl with changes in humidity.

   
       

 

Camcorder

         
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