celandine

(Chelidonium majus)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

celandine

NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

UPL - Obligate upland

Northcentral & Northeast

UPL - Obligate upland

Nativity

Native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Introduced and cultivated as an ornamental. Occasionally escapes cultivation. Established.

 
Occurrence

Uncommon in Minnesota

 
Habitat

Moderately moist. Gardens, woodlands, thickets, hedge rows, roadsides, railroads, waste places. Full sun to light shade.

 
Flowering

May to August

 
Flower Color

Yellow

 
Height

12 to 32

 

Identification

This is a 12 to 32 tall, erect, biennial or perennial forb that rises on leafy stems from a thick, sometimes branched, underground stem (rhizome). It spreads by seed.

The first year the plant appears as a rosette of several basal leaves. In the second year it produces one or more leafy aerial stems.

Stems are 12 to 32 long, sprawling to strongly ascending, ribbed, and sometimes branched. They are covered with a whitish, waxy substance (glaucous) and are sparsely covered with fine, more or less spreading hairs. Stems and leaves exude a yellow to yellowish-orange sap when torn. The sap is toxic and irritating to the skin.

Basal leaves are up to 12 long and up to 6 wide, and are on leaf stalks (petioles) that are up to 4 long. The petiole and central axis (rachis), if present, are sparsely hairy. The leaf blades are deeply pinnately divided, sometimes to the midrib, into 5 to 9 lobes or leaflets. The lobes/leaflets are egg-shaped or inversely egg-shaped in outline and rounded at the tip. The upper surface is green and hairless. The lower surface is pale, glaucous, sparsely hairy or hairless, and conspicuously veined. The margins are bluntly toothed, irregularly scalloped, and usually also shallowly to deeply lobed. Stem leaves are on shorter leaf stalks but are otherwise similar to basal leaves.

The inflorescence is an umbrella-like cluster (umbel) of a few flowers, sometimes just a single flower, at the end of the stem and sometimes also from upper leaf axils.

The flowers are ½ to ¾ in diameter. They are on 3 16 to 1 long stalks (pedicels). The pedicels are only slightly inflated at the top, not forming a cup or disk. There are 2 sepals, 4 petals, 12 to 30 stamens, and 1 pistil. The sepals are hairless, 5 16 to ½ long, broadly egg-shaped, and broadly pointed at the tip. They are deeply concave, forming a cup around the developing flower. They are not fused together into a cap. They drop off as the flower opens. The petals are bright yellow, 5 16 to 9 16 long and wide, broadly inversely egg-shaped, and rounded at the tip. They are similar in size and shape and are not fused at the base. There is a double-flowered form of this plant that produces flowers with 12 to 24 petals each. The stamens have small yellow anthers. The filaments are not fused together. The pistil is formed of two fused carpels and is attached above the point of attachment of the petals (superior). It is green, narrow, and about as long or slightly longer than the stamens. At the tip of the pistil there is a single 1 64 to 1 32 long style with a white, more or less cap-like stigma.

The fruit is an ascending, hairless, ¾ to 2 long seed capsule containing numerous seeds. It is narrowly cylinder-shaped, slender, widest at the base, and tapered to the tip, where the persistent style is still attached. When ripe it splits open longitudinally from the base. The seeds are spread by ants, ant-eating birds, and humans.

 
Similar
Species

No similar species in Minnesota.

Celandine poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum) flowers are much larger, up to 2¼ in diameter. The sepals are hairy. The fruits are ellipse-shaped, bristly-hairy, and nodding. It does not occur in Minnesota.


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 3, 4, 7, 22, 28, 29.


Comments

Toxic Sap
Celandine sap is bright yellow or yellowish-orange and toxic. It is a skin irritant and has been used medicinally to treat warts.


Taxonomy

Family:

Papaveraceae (poppy)

 

Subfamily:

Papaveroideae

 

Tribe:

Chelidonieae

 
Synonyms

Chelidonium majus var. laciniatum

Chelidonium majus var. majus

Chelidonium majus var. plenum

Chlidonium majus

 
Common
Names

celandine

great celandine

greater celandine

nipplewort

rock-poppy

swallowwort

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

carpel

The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, styles, and stigmas.

 

filament

On plants: The thread-like stalk of a stamen which supports the anther. On Lepidoptera: One of a pair of long, thin, fleshy extensions extending from the thorax, and sometimes also from the abdomen, of a caterpillar.

 

glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

 

pedicel

In plants: the stalk of a single flower in a cluster of flowers. In Hymenoptera and Araneae: the narrow stalk connecting the thorax to the abdomen.

 

petiole

The stalk of a leaf blade or compound leaf that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

 

pinnate

Having the leaflets of a compound leaf arranged on opposite sides of a common stalk.

 

rachis

The main axis of a compound leaf, appearing as an extension of the leaf stalk; the main axis of an inflorescence.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

rosette

A radiating group or cluster of leaves usually on or close to the ground.

 

sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

umbel

A flat-topped or convex, umbrella-shaped cluster of flowers or buds arising from more or less a single point.

       

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Habitat

  celandine    
       

Plant

  celandine   celandine
       

Flower of Double-flowered Form

  celandine   celandine
       

Leaves

  celandine   celandine
       
       

 

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  Celandine (Chelidonium majus)
Bill Keim
 
  Celandine (Chelidonium majus)  
     
  Chelidonium majus
Belack Darko
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on May 19, 2011

More information?? Review:

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Chelidonium%20majus
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?10169

 
     

 

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  Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus) - 2012-05-06
Westdelta
 
   
 
About

Published on May 9, 2012

Chelidonium majus (greater celandine; in Europe tetterwort, although in America the same name refers to bloodroot) is a herbaceous perennial plant, the only species in the genus Chelidonium.

----------------
De stinkende gouwe (Chelidonium majus) ook wrattenkruid genoemd, is een algemeen voorkomende vaste plant uit de papaverfamilie (Papaveraceae). 52.03666 4.24848

 
     
  Lara Greenspan on Greater Celandine
swirlysunburst
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on May 23, 2010

Lara Greenspan on Greater Celandine

 
     
  Greater Celandine - Stinkende Gouwe - Chelidonium majus
dreamshot
 
   
 
About

Published on May 17, 2012

De stinkende gouwe is een algemeen voorkomende vaste plant uit de papaverfamilie (Papaveraceae).

Het oranjegele melksap van de stinkende gouwe werkt bij langdurig gebruik tegen wratten. Daarom wordt deze plant ook wrattenkruid genoemd.

Stinkende Gouwe - Greater Celandine - Chelidonium majus - Schöllkraut - Chélidoine - Celidonia mayor - hierba golondrinera - Papaveraceae - wrattenkruid

Looking for broadcast footage? Don't shoot! Contact http://www.stockshot.nl/ ©
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playlist stinzenflora: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=5833EA271B039C14

 
     
  CELIDONIA MAYOR o hierba golondrinera: Chelidonium majus (www.riomoros.com)
rioMoros
 
   
 
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Published on Jun 26, 2013

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Más información sobre LA CELIDONIA MAYOR o hierba golondrinera (Chelidonium majus) en: www.riomoros.com

 
     

 

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