chicory

(Cichorium intybus)

Conservation Status
chicory
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Chicory is a 12 to 72 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises usually on a single stem from a long taproot. When broken or torn the stems and leaves exude a milky latex.

The stems are erect or ascending, green to reddish-brown, ridged longitudinally, and usually branched. They are usually hairless above, often moderately to densely covered near the base with white, curled hairs.

Basal leaves are inversely lance-shaped, 2 to 13 long or longer, and to 3 wide or wider. They are irregularly cut with triangular lobes (pinnatifid) and rounded sinuses. They resemble leaves of dandelion (Taraxacum). They have a prominent midvein and numerous lateral veins that join in a network before reaching the margin. The upper surface is minutely hairy. The lower surface is minutely hairy and has longer, conspicuous hairs on the midrib. The margins are irregularly toothed. Stem leaves are alternate, stalkless, and clasping, otherwise similar to basal leaves. They become much smaller, less divided, and less toothed as they ascend the stem.

The inflorescence at the end of the stem may be an unbranched, elongated, spike-like cluster (raceme) or a branched cluster with ascending, spike-like branches. Additional dense clusters or 1 to 3 flowers rise from the upper leaf axils.

The flower heads are mostly stalkless or on very short stalks, occasionally on stalks ½ to 3¼ long. The whorl of bracts at the base of the flower head (involucre) is cup-shaped to broadly cylinder-shaped and to 3 16in diameter. There are 12 to 30 ray florets and no disk florets. The rays are usually blue or purplish-blue, rarely pink or white. They are 9 16 to 1 long, strap-shaped, and have 5 teeth at the tip. A blue stamen tipped with a blue anther rises from the base of each ray floret. The flowers open in the morning and close later in the day.

The fruit is an oblong to egg-shaped, 5-angled achene.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 72

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Blue or purplish-blue

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

 

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Pastures, roadsides, railroads, disturbed areas.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

July to October

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 28.

 
  1/4/2014      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and the Indian subcontinent. Introduced and naturalized in North America.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  
 

Family

Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)  
  Subfamily Cichorioideae (chicories, dandelions, and allies)  
  Tribe Cichorieae  
  Subtribe Cichoriinae  
  Genus Cichorium (chicory)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

chicory (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum)

chicory (Cichorium intybus var.intybus)

chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum)

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

blue sailors

blue-sailors

chicory

coffee chicory

coffeeweed

common chicory

succory

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

Involucre

A whorl of bracts beneath or surrounding a flower or flower cluster.

 

Panicle

A pyramidal inflorescence with a main stem and branches. Flowers on the lower, longer branches mature earlier than those on the shorter, upper ones.

 

Pinnatifid

Deeply cut, more than half way to the midrib but not to the midrib, into lobes that are spaced out along the midrib; the lobes do not form separate leaflets.

 

Raceme

An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.

       
Visitor Photos
   

Share your photo of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more photos and, if you like, a caption.

       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  chicory    
       

Flower Head

  chicory   chicory
       

Leaves

  chicory    
       

Stem

  chicory    
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Cichorium intybus
Susanne Wiik
 
  Cichorium intybus  
 
About

Sikori, Chicor

 
     
  Chicory
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Chicory  
 
About

Cichorium intybus

 
     
  Chicory (Cichorium intybus)
Bill Keim
 
  Chicory (Cichorium intybus)  
     
  Cichorium intybus CHICORY
Frank Mayfield
 
  Cichorium intybus CHICORY  

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       

Share your video of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more videos or YouTube links and, if you like, a caption.

       
       
Other Videos
 
  Chicory (Cichorium intybus) ~ Introduced Species
Wandering Sole TV
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 13, 2013

Chicory (Cichorium intybus), sometimes referred to as Blue Sailors, are an introduced species to North America (and elsewhere). They are a member of the Sunflower (Asteraceae) family and are native to Eurasia. Their leaves have long been used as a food source and their roots can be used in the making of a coffee substitute.

Lacking natural predators and diseases, invasive plant species grow and spread rapidly throughout native ecosystems. Once established, invasive plants are very difficult to control and they choke out native species. This greatly affects wildlife habitat and rangeland. On a global scale, invasive pant and animal species are considered to be the second largest contributor to the loss of biodiversity, next to the loss of habitat.

   
       
  Common Chicory (Cichorium Intybus) - 2012-06-26
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 27, 2012

Common Chicory (Cichorium Intybus).

---------------
Wilde cichorei (Cichorium intybus) is een overblijvende plant uit de composietenfamilie (Asteraceae).

   
       
  Chickory (Cichorium intybus )
wvoutdoorman
 
   
 
About

Published on Aug 22, 2012

Chickory (Cichorium intybus ) plant

   
       

 

Camcorder

         
Visitor Sightings
   

Report a sighting of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Be sure to include a location.

     
     
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
   

 

 

Binoculars


Last Updated:

About Us | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | © 2022 MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.