prairie violet

(Viola pedatifida)

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland Indicator Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

 
prairie violet
 
 
Description

Prairie violet is a 3 to 6 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a short, slanted or erect caudex and fibrous roots.

There is no central stem. The leaves are all basal and form a rosette. They are on stalks up to 1 long. The leaf blades are 1 to 3 long and 1 to 4 wide. They are dissected almost to the base into usually 3 main divisions. Each division is again deeply cut into 2 to 4 linear segments, and the segments are often again lobed. Early leaves and later leaves are equally divided. The upper and lower surfaces may be moderately covered with spreading hairs or almost hairless. The margins are untoothed and have a fringe of hairs.

One to several leafless flower stalks (scapes) rise from the rootstock at the middle of the rosette. The scape is erect, leafless, and hairless, and is topped with a single flower. It is abruptly curved downward near the top. The flowers are usually held above the early leaves but are often overtopped by later leaves.

Two types of flowers are produced: open, cross-pollinated (chasmogamous) flowers; and closed, self-fertilizing (cleistogamous) flowers.

Cross-pollinated flowers are ¾ to 13 16 wide and showy. There are 5 sepals, 5 petals, 5 stamens, and 1 style. The sepals are green and shorter than the petals. The petals are violet or pale violet and ¼ to ¾ long. The two upper petals are erect or bent backward. The three lower lobes are spreading, white at the base, and have a tuft of white hairs (beard) near the throat. The lowest lobe has conspicuous, dark purple veins near the throat and a hooked, rounded spur at the base. The 5 stamens are orange and have very short filaments. They do not protrude from the throat of the corolla and are concealed by the beards of the petals. The flowers are not fragrant.

Self-pollinating flowers occur on shorter scapes that may be erect or lie flat on the ground.

The fruit is an egg-shaped to ellipse-shaped, ¼ to long, hairless, yellowish-brown capsule with many brown seeds. The capsule protrudes noticeably beyond the persistent sepals.

 

Height

3 to 6

 

Flower Color

Violet to pale violet

 

Similar Species

Birdfoot violet (Viola pedata) flowers are somewhat larger, up to 1½ wide. The lower 3 petals are not bearded. The stamens protrude conspicuously from the throat of the corolla. It does not produce cleistogamous flowers. It is found in southeast and east-central Minnesota.

Habitat

Dry to moderate moisture. Prairies, forest and woodland openings. Full sun.

Ecology

Flowering

April to June

 

Pests and Diseases

 

Use

 

Distribution

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28, 29, 30.

5/7/2024    
     

Nativity

Native

     

Occurrence

Common

Taxonomy

Kingdom

Plantae (green algae and land plants)

Subkingdom

Viridiplantae (green plants)

Infrakingdom

Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)

Superdivision

Embryophyta (land plants)

Division

Tracheophyta (vascular plants)

Subdivision

Spermatophytina (seed plants)

Class

Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)

Subclass

Rosidae

Superorder

Rosanae

Order

Malpighiales (nances, willows, and allies)

Family

Violaceae (violet)

Subfamily

Violoideae

Tribe

Violeae

Genus

Viola (violets)

Subgenus

Viola (pansies and violets)

Section

Nosphinium

Subsection

Borealiamericanae (eastern American blue violets)

   

Subordinate Taxa

 

   

Synonyms

Viola delphinifolia

Viola palmata var. pedatifida

Viola pedatifida ssp. pedatifida

Viola pedatifida var. pedatifida

   

Common Names

bearded birdfoot violet

crowfoot violet

larkspur violet

prairie birdfoot violet

prairie violet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bearded

Bearing one or more tufts of hairs.

 

Caudex

A short, thickened, woody, persistent enlargement of the stem, at or below ground level, used for water storage.

 

Cleistogamous

Automatically self-pollinating. Refers to bud-like flowers that do not open but automatically self-pollinate, or to plants with such flowers.

 

Corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Scape

An erect, leafless stalk growing from the rootstock and supporting a flower or a flower cluster.

Visitor Photos
 

Share your photo of this plant.

 

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more photos and, if you like, a caption.

Dan W. Andree

A real Little Prairie Violet Plant...

A light rain shower left small remaining raindrops on this little prairie violet. Seems like there are many images/pictures/videos etc. of large groups of blooming flowers captured which I can understand, but this little native prairie plant was too cute to pass up. They sure don’t have to get very big to bloom though I am sure it will continue to grow some. Seems like it was just getting a start. I may use it in a video since this is a still image from the video I took of it. Some little things though can go unnoticed are beautiful too.

  prairie violet
     
prairie violet

Prairie Violets...

These were from yesterday May 16, 2024 at a Prairie area in Norman Co. Mn. I filmed them too and will possibly use some footage in an upcoming video since they are a small but crucial plant for certain species of butterflies like the regal fritillary. Also they seen to be photogenic little plants. One should note wood ticks are out in full force in certain areas. There was some recent rains and a cooler morning and early afternoon and seems like wood ticks are a lot less out right after recent rains and a cooler night. But today it is suppose to be around 80 to low 80’s and its been sunny so I am sure the little creeps are back out in full force in some areas. One just needs to be aware especially in spring seems like they are the most abundant then, but best to be aware all season.

     

Prairie Violets...

I came across these while out on a prairie in Norman County, Mn. on 5-14-24. First time I had ever seen one other than in photos or some online videos.

Not easy to find they are so small and low to the ground other vegetation can conceal them. I found them to be an interesting and a beautiful little plant.

I plan on checking again to see if more become visible since some seemed to almost just be sprouting or starting out. I really appreciate the little violets.

  prairie violet
     
prairie violet  

prairie violet

Some small Prairie Plant...

They kind a look like some online prairie violet plants but these didn’t have any flowers on them at least not yet. They were real small even though look larger in the photos.

They were on a Prairie in Norman Co. today... 5-7-24

MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
prairie violet   prairie violet

Plant

     
prairie violet   prairie violet

Plant

   
     
prairie violet   prairie violet

Plant

     
prairie violet   prairie violet

Flower

     
prairie violet   prairie violet

Leaves

     
prairie violet   prairie violet

Leaves

     
prairie violet   prairie violet

Leaves

 

Camera

Slideshows

Viola pedatifida PRAIRIE VIOLET
Frank Mayfield

Viola pedatifida PRAIRIE VIOLET

 

slideshow

Visitor Videos
 

Share your video of this plant.

 

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach a video, a YouTube link, or a cloud storage link.

 

 

 
 
Other Videos

 

 
 

 

Camcorder

Visitor Sightings
 

Report a sighting of this plant.

 

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Be sure to include a location.

Dan W. Andree
5/16/2024

Location: Norman Co. Mn.

These were from yesterday May 16, 2024 at a Prairie area in Norman Co. Mn. I filmed them too and will possibly use some footage in an upcoming video since they are a small but crucial plant for certain species of butterflies like the regal fritillary. Also they seen to be photogenic little plants. One should note wood ticks are out in full force in certain areas. There was some recent rains and a cooler morning and early afternoon and seems like wood ticks are a lot less out right after recent rains and a cooler night. But today it is suppose to be around 80 to low 80’s and its been sunny so I am sure the little creeps are back out in full force in some areas. One just needs to be aware especially in spring seems like they are the most abundant then, but best to be aware all season.

prairie violet

Dan W. Andree
5/14/2024

Location: Norman Co. Mn.

I came across these while out on a prairie in Norman County, Mn. on 5-14-24. First time I had ever seen one other than in photos or some online videos.

Not easy to find they are so small and low to the ground other vegetation can conceal them. I found them to be an interesting and a beautiful little plant.

I plan on checking again to see if more become visible since some seemed to almost just be sprouting or starting out. I really appreciate the little violets.

prairie violet

Dan W. Andree
5/7/2024

Location: a Prairie in Norman Co.

They kind a look like some online prairie violet plants but these didn’t have any flowers on them at least not yet. They were real small even though look larger in the photos.

They were on a Prairie in Norman Co. today... 5-7-24

prairie violet
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings

 

 

Binoculars

 

Created:

Last Updated:

© MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.

About Us

Privacy Policy

Contact Us