dame’s rocket

(Hesperis matronalis)

Conservation Status
dame’s rocket
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Dame’s rocket is a 2 to 3 tall, showy, erect, biennial or short-lived perennial forb that rises from a taproot.

The stems are erect, hairy, and often sparingly branched above the middle.

The leaves are alternate, lance-shaped, 1 to 4¾ long, and ¾ to 1½ wide, becoming progressively smaller as they ascend the stem. The lower leaves are connected to the stem on a short leaf stalk. The upper leaves are stalkless. The blade tapers to a point at the tip and is rounded or wedge-shaped, but never heart-shaped or indented, at the base. The margins have small, widely spaced teeth. The upper and lower surfaces are hairy.

The inflorescence is a loose, unbranched, 6 to 12 long cluster at the end of the stem and upper branches.

The flowers are ¾ to 1 across, on hairy, 1 long stalks. They have 4 rounded, purple petals that are clawed at the base. There are 4 sepals, each with a sac at the base, that are erect and form a mock corolla tube around the petal claws. There are 6 stamens, the four longer ones plainly visible at the center of the corolla. The flowers are fragrant, becoming more fragrant at night.

The fruit is a 2 to 4 long, narrow pod with seeds in one row. The pod is constricted between the seeds. It is widely spreading on a stout stalk.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

2 to 3

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Purple, fading to pink or white

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Money plant (Lunaria annua) lower leaves are heart-shaped at the base. The fruits are coin-shaped pods.

Wild blue phlox (Phlox divaricata ssp. laphamii) is a shorter plant. The leaves are opposite, narrower, and untoothed leaves. The flowers have five petals.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Roadsides, open woods, wood margins, moist bottomlands, disturbed sites. Full to partial sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

May to September

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 

Defense Mechanisms

 
 

This and other mustards (family Brassicaceae) produce chemical compounds when cells are damaged that are toxic to most animals, fungi, and bacteria.

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 28.

 
  2/6/2014      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to Europe and western Asia. Introduced as an ornamental. Escaped cultivation and now naturalized in North America.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Subclass Rosidae  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Brassicales (Mustards, Capers, and Allies)  
 

Family

Brassicaceae (mustard)  
  Tribe Hesperideae  
 

Genus

Hesperis (rocket)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis ssp. adzharica)

dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis ssp. candida)

dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis ssp. cladotricha)

dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis ssp. matronalis)

dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis ssp. voronovii)

snow-white dame’s violet (Hesperis matronalis ssp. nivea)

 
       
 

Five subspecies of dame’s rocket, not including the nominate subspecies, are recognized. None of these occur in North America.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Crucifera matronalis

Hesperis caucasica

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

damask-violet

dame’s rocket

dame’s-violet

sweet rocket

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Claw

A stalk-like narrowed base of some petals and sepals.

 

Corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

       
Visitor Photos
   

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Bill Reynolds
       
  dame's rocket    
       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  dame’s rocket   dame’s rocket
       
  dame’s rocket   dame’s rocket
       

Inflorescence

  dame’s rocket   dame’s rocket
       
  dame’s rocket   dame’s rocket
       

Flowers

  dame’s rocket   dame’s rocket
       
  dame’s rocket   dame’s rocket
       

Sepals

  dame’s rocket    
       

Leaves

  dame’s rocket   dame’s rocket
       

Fruit

  dame’s rocket    
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Dames Rocket
DianesDigitals
 
  Dames Rocket  
 
About

Copyright DianesDigitals

 
     

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       

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Other Videos
 
  Dame's Rocket, identification of the Wisconsin Invasive Species Hesperis matronalis
uwcoopextension
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jan 31, 2011

This is part of a series of videos providing key characteristics for the identification of invasive plants listed in Wisconsin's invasive species administrative rule NR 40. These videos are produced by Dr. Mark Renz of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. For more information on invasive plants and invasive plant management in Wisconsin visit http://fyi.uwex.edu/weedsci or http://ipcm.wisc.edu/Publications/WeedSciencepublications/tabid/116/Default.aspx

   
       
  Dame's Rocket (Hesperis matronalis)
wvoutdoorman
 
   
 
About

Published on May 11, 2012

Dame's Rocket (Hesperis matronalis)

   
       
  Dame's Rocket (Hesperis Matronalis) / Damask Violet - 2012-06-25
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 27, 2012

Hesperis matronalis is a herbaceous plant species in the mustard family, Brassicaceae. It has numerous common names, including dame's rocket, damask violet, dame's violet, dames-wort, dame's gilliflower, night-scented gilliflower, queen's gilliflower, rogue's gilliflower, summer lilac, sweet rocket, mother-of-the-evening and winter gilliflower.

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Damastbloem (Hesperis matronalis is een vaste plant die behoort tot de kruisbloemenfamilie (Brassicaceae).

   
       

 

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