spinulose wood fern

(Dryopteris carthusiana)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

spinulose wood fern

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACW - Facultative wetland

Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACW - Facultative wetland

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Common

Habitat

Moist to wet. Swamps, woods, streambanks.

Sporulation

July to September

     
Height

Fronds 6 to 30 long

     

Identification

This is a relatively large, delicate, perennial fern that rises from a short-creeping rhizome and fibrous roots. The rhizome is thick, coarse, erect, and scaly. It often forms clumps.

Sterile and fertile fronds are similar in appearance. The fronds are erect, arching, 6 to 30 long, 4 to 12 wide, and lacy in appearance. They are about 2 times longer than wide, and most are at least 16 long. They are deciduous, dying back in the winter.

The leaf stem (stipe) is stout and 2 to 12 long, ¼ to the length of the leafy portion (blade). Near the base it is densely covered with tan, chaffy scales. There are scattered scales on the middle and upper portions.

The blade is narrowly oval to narrowly triangular, and often light green to yellowish-green. It is pinnately divided into 10 to 15 pairs of leaflets (pinnae). The blade is about the same width from the base to the middle. The upper half tapers to a point with concave sides along the tip. The lowest pair of pinna are not angled downward. The central axis of the blade (rachis) is pale green. It does not have glandular hairs.

The pinnae are oblong lance-shaped, short stalked or stalkless, and taper to a narrow point with concave sides along the tip. They are deeply, pinnately divided. They are often angled upward and are arranged more or less parallel to the plane of the blade. The lowest pair of pinnae are lance shaped to elongated triangular, narrowing rapidly from the base, and are often slightly shorter than the adjacent pair.

The pinnules are lobed. The basal pair of pinnules, closest to the rachis, is the longest and is deeply lobed, cut up to halfway or more to the midrib (costule). They become smaller and less deeply cut as they ascend the costa. The inner pinnule of the lowest pair, the one pointing toward the base, is longer than the opposing one, the one pointing toward the apex. The veins visible on the underside are forked. They are free, meaning they do not rejoin. They do not extend all the way to the margin of the pinnule. The margins are finely toothed. The teeth have a spiny tip that often curves toward the tip of the pinnule.

The rachis, costa, and costule have a V-shaped groove on the top. The groove of the costule connects with the groove of the costa, which connects to the groove of the rachis, which connects to the groove of the stipe.

The reproductive structures are born on the underside of the pinnules. There are numerous, round clusters (sora) of spore-bearing cases (sporangia) arranged on each side of the midrib halfway between the midrib and the margin. It is covered with a protective veil (indusium). The indusium is kidney-shaped, clearly visible, and attached to the pinnule at the inner curve. There are no glands on the indusium.

 
Similar
Species

Common wood fern (Dryopteris intermedia) is evergreen—the fronds remain green throughout winter. It has gland-tipped hairs on the rachis, costa, and indusia. The lower pinnule closest to the midrib is shorter than the one adjacent to it on the same side. On the basal pinnae the lower pinnule closest to the midrib is longer but less than twice as long as the one opposite to it. The ultimate segments (pinnule lobes) are more deeply dissected, appearing lacy. It is much rarer in Minnesota, occurring only in the easternmost counties.


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28.


Comments

 


Taxonomy

Order:

Polypodiales (true ferns)

 

Family:

Dryopteridaceae (wood ferns)

 

Subfamily:

Dryopteridoideae

 
Synonyms

Dryopteris austriaca var. spinulosa

Dryopteris spinulosa

 
Common
Names

narrow buckler fern (UK)

spinulose shield fern

spinulose wood fern

spinulose woodfern

toothed wood fern


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

costa

The central axis of a pinna, to which pinnules are attached.

 

costule

The midrib of a pinnule.

 

frond

A large leaf with many divisions: in ferns, the compound leaf, including the stipe and the blade; in mosses, a closely and regularly branched stem resembling a fern leaf; in lichens, a stalkless, leaf-like extension.

 

indusium

In ferns, a veil covering the cluster (sorus) of spore-producing structures (sporangia).

 

pinna

The primary division of a compound leaf or fern frond.

 

pinnate

Having the leaflets of a compound leaf arranged on opposite sides of a common stalk.

 

pinnule

The ultimate segment (individual leaflets) of a twice or more compound leaf or fern frond.

 

rachis

The main axis of a compound leaf, appearing as an extension of the leaf stalk; the main axis of an inflorescence.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

sorus

A compact cluster of spore-bearing cases or sacs (sporangia) on a fern.

 

sporangium

A spore bearing structure, as of a fern or moss.

 

stipe

A supporting stalk-like structure lacking vascular tissue: in fungi, the stalk supporting the mushroom cap; in ferns, the stalk connecting the blade to the rhizome; in flowering plants, the stalk connecting the flower’s ovary to the receptacle; in orchids; the band connecting the pollina with the viscidium.

       

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Robert Briggs


  spinulose wood fern    

       
       
       

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  Щитовник шартрский - Dryopteris carthusiana.
Лекарственные растения.
 
   
 
About

Published on Apr 1, 2015

Энциклопедический словарь.

Google Translation: Encyclopedic Dictionary.

 
     

 

slideshow

     

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  F05 Dryopteris carthusiana Séquence 5-Fougères 1.m4v
Jean Désorcy
 
   
 
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Uploaded on Jan 10, 2010

La Dryoptéride spinuleuse du printemps à l'automne. Spinulose Shield Fern from spring to fall. Helecho Dryopteris carthusiana de la primavera hasta el otoño.

 
     

 

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Robert Briggs
10/20/2016

Location: Afton State park, Southern River Trail

spinulose wood fern


     
     
 

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