Felt Horn Lichen

(Cladonia phyllophora)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

Felt Horn Lichen

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Occurrence

Widespread and common

Habitat/Hosts

 

 

 

 

 

    Photo by Luciearl
 
Identification

Felt Horn Lichen is a widespread, common, shrubby (fruticose) lichen. It occurs around the globe in the northern latitudes. In Minnesota it is common in the northern third of the state, rare to absent elsewhere. It grows on the ground in full sun or partial shade.

Felt Horn Lichen produces two types of vegetative growth (thallus). The primary thallus is a leaf-like scale (squamule) that lies on the soil. The squamules are 1 16 to (2 to 15 mm) long and 1 16 to (2 to 4 mm) wide. They may be scattered, clustered, or dense and overlapping. The margins have many ascending lobes. The upper surface is lime green, olive green, or grayish-green, and smooth, not covered with granules (sorediate). The lower surface is white. The squamules often disappear as the secondary thallus grows.

The secondary thallus is a vertical, usually unbranched, 5 16 to 3 (8 to 80 mm) tall, 1 32 to (1 to 4 mm) wide stalk that rises from the center of a squamule. It is somewhat trumpet shaped and has a puffy, soft surface, features that gives this lichen its common name Felt Horn Lichen. The stalk is lime green, olive green, or grayish-green. It may be all one color but is often mottled or spotted. The layer of protective tissue (cortex) is split longitudinally. Many of the stalks broaden gradually at the tip into a 1 32 to (1 to 4 mm) wide cup. The cup is weakly or strongly convex and is wavy or lobed on the margins.

Abundant brown, 1 32 to 1 16 (1 to 2 mm) in diameter reproductive structures (apothecia) appear on the margins of the cups and at the tips of branches that do not produce cups.

 
Similar
Species

 

 
Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 4, 24, 26, 29, 30, 77.

 
Comments

 

 
Taxonomy

Division:

Ascomycota (sac fungi)

 

No Rank:

saccharomyceta

 

Subdivision:

Pezizomycotina

 

No Rank:

leotiomyceta

 

Class:

Lecanoromycetes

 

Subclass:

Lecanoromycetidae

 

Order:

Lecanorales

 

Suborder:

Lecanorineae

 

Family:

Cladoniaceae

 

Mycobiont:

Cladonia phyllophora

 

Photobiont:

 

 
Synonyms

Capitularia degenerans

Cladonia degenerans

 
Common
Names

Felt Horn Lichen

Felt Lichen

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Apothecium

An open, disk-shaped or cup-shaped, reproductive structure, with spore sacs on the upper surface, that produces spores for the fungal partner of a lichen. Plural: apothecia.

 

Fruticose

Shrubby: referring to the growh form of lichens that may be tufted, draped, or stalked.

 

Soredium

The reproductive structure of a lichen consisting of a cluster of algal cells (the photobiont) wrapped in fungal filaments (the mycobiont). Plural: soredia.

 

Squamules

On lichens: small, flat, often overlapping, leaf-like scales without a lower cortex. Adjective: squamulose

 

Thallus

The vegetative body of a lichen composed of both the alga and the fungus.

       
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Luciearl
       
  Felt Horn Lichen    
       
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Luciearl
8/2/2019

Location: Cass County (Paul Bunyan Trail)

Felt Horn Lichen (Cladonia phyllophora)


     
     
 
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Created: 8/24/2019

Last Updated:

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