Sinewed Bushy Lichen

(Ramalina americana)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

Sinewed Bushy Lichen

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Occurrence

Widespread and very common

Habitat/Hosts

Bark of twigs and branches; full sun

 

 

 

 

    Photo by Luciearl
 
Identification

Sinewed Bushy Lichen is widespread and very common. It occurs in the eastern deciduous forests of the United States and southern Canada, and in the mountainous forests of Mexico. It is very common east of the Great Plains. There are just a handful of reports in the west and those are likely a due to transport by humans. In Minnesota it is very common in the north, scattered to absent in the south. It is found on bark of old hardwood trees, usually in full sun, mostly on twigs and branches in the upper canopy but also on the trunk. It gets moisture from the air and rain, and nutrients from debris that accumulates around it (epiphytic). It is more sensitive to air pollution than most lichens, and is absent from areas with even mild air pollution.

Ramalina americana is a species complex with three forms (morphs); americana morph, asahinae morph, and sayeana morph. The americana morph, the only morph found in Canada and the United States, was formerly thought to be the European species Ramalina americana. It was recognized as a separate species in 1978.

Sinewed Bushy Lichen appears as a short, shrubby (fruticose) tuft that is usually to 13 16 (1 to 3 cm) wide, sometimes a little wider. The tuft is a cluster of numerous individual fruiting bodies (thalli). Each thallus is narrow, straight-sided (linear), strongly flattened, sparsely branched, and often lobed. It is yellowish-green, 1 64 to (0.2 to 3 mm) wide, and strongly ridged and channeled. It is solid in cross section all the way to the base. It is neither warty nor perforated. The upper surface (cortex) has numerous minute, white, openings (pseudocyphellae) that are raised or level with the thallus surface, not depressed into it.

Yellow, disk-like, spore-producing structures (apothecia) are frequent and large. They appear at or close to the tips of the branches. They are usually flat but often contorted.

 
Similar
Species

 

 
Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 4, 24, 26, 29, 30, 77, 81.

 
Comments

Taxonomy
The americana morph of this lichen was formerly thought to be the European species Ramalina fastigiata. It was recognized as a separate species in 1978 based on the presence of minute openings in the cortex (pseudocyphellae), the shape of the spores, and chemistry.

 
Taxonomy

Division:

Ascomycota (sac fungi)

 

No Rank:

saccharomyceta

 

Subdivision:

Pezizomycotina

 

No Rank:

leotiomyceta

 

Class:

Lecanoromycetes

 

Subclass:

Lecanoromycetidae

 

Order:

Lecanorales

 

Suborder:

Lecanorineae

 

Family:

Ramalinaceae

 

Mycobiont:

Ramalina americana

 

Photobiont:

 

 
Synonyms

 

 
Common
Names

American Cartilage Lichen

Sinewed Bushy Lichen

Sinewed Ramalina

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Apothecium

An open, disk-shaped or cup-shaped, reproductive structure, with spore sacs on the upper surface, that produces spores for the fungal partner of a lichen. Plural: apothecia.

 

Fruticose

Shrubby: referring to the growh form of lichens that may be tufted, draped, or stalked.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Thallus

The vegetative body of a lichen composed of both the alga and the fungus.

       
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Luciearl
       

lichen found on dead oak branches

  Sinewed Bushy Lichen   Sinewed Bushy Lichen
       
  Sinewed Bushy Lichen    
       
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Luciearl
10/3/2019

Location: Fairview Twp., Cass County

lichen found on dead oak branches

Sinewed Bushy Lichen


     
     
 
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Created: 10/22/2019

Last Updated:

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