yellow archangel

(Lamiastrum galeobdolon)

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

yellow archangel


NNA - Not applicable


not listed


Native to Europe and western Asia. Cultivated and escaped cultivation. Naturalized in parts of North America.




Moist. Woodlands. Full to partial shade.


April to June

Flower Color



6 to 24

          Photo by Bill Reynolds


This is a 6 to 24 tall perennial forb that rises from a creeping underground stem (rhizome). It spreads by producing creeping above-ground runners (stolons) that root and produce another plant at the nodes. The stolons have large leaves.

The stems are square, and sparsely hairy. They may be erect, lay on the ground with the tip ascending (decumbent), or lay flat on the ground (prostrate).

Stem leaves are opposite, ¾ to 3½ long, and 1.2 to 2 times longer than wide. They are on to 1¼ long leaf stalks. The leaves become smaller and shorter stalked as they ascend the stem. Upper leaves are stalkless. The leaf blades are broadly egg-shaped, straight across to more or less heart-shaped at the base, and taper to a point at the tip with straight or concave sides along the tip. The upper and lower surfaces are sparsely covered with appressed hairs. The upper surface is marked with spots or patches of silver (variegated). The underside is often purplish. The margins are coarsely toothed with rounded or sharp teeth.

The inflorescence is a pair of opposite branched clusters (cymes), at the end of the stem and rising from opposite leaf axils, that form a false whorl (verticillaster). There are usually 4 or 5 verticillasters per plant. Each verticillaster has 2 to 10 flowers.

Each flower is to 1 long. There are 5 sepals, 5 petals, 4 stamens, and 1 style. The sepals are green, ¼ to long, and are fused at the base into a calyx tube then separated at the tip into 5 more or less equal lobes. The petals are bright yellow. They are fused at the base into a slender corolla tube then separated at the tip into 2 widely spreading lips. The corolla tube has a ring of hairs inside and is longer than the calyx tube. The upper lip is hood-like, unlobed, and has long, stiff, spreading hairs on the margin. The lower lip has 3 more or less equally sized lobes with brown markings. The stamens do not extend beyond the hooded upper lip. The style is about as long as the corolla and has 2 lobes at the tip.

The fruit is four egg-shaped nutlets.



Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 4, 7, 22, 24, 29, 30.


There are five subspecies of this plant. At least three are found in North America (see Subordinate Taxa below). None are native.



Lamiaceae (mint)







Subordinate Taxa

yellow archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. argentatum)

yellow archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. flavidum)

yellow archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. montanum var. variegatum)


Galeobdolon luteum

Galeopsis galeobdolon

Lamium galeobdolon


yellow archangel










The upper angle where a branch, stem, leaf stalk, or vein diverges.



The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.



A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.



A branched, flat-topped or convex flower cluster in which the terminal flower opens first and the outermost flowers open last.



The small swelling of the stem from which one or more leaves, branches, or buds originate.



A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.



An above-ground, creeping stem that grows along the ground and produces roots and sometimes new plants at its nodes. A runner.



A pair of cymes rising from opposite leaf clusters that creates a false whorl.


Visitor Photos

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Bill Reynolds

Though its an escapee, its quite the looker!

  yellow archangel    







  Yellow Archangel
Wez Smith
  Yellow Archangel  

Yellow Archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon).

  BIO 101: Yellow Archangel
Sadie Sullivan

Published on Dec 1, 2013

No description available.

  L.E.A.D. Service Learning (Yellow Archangel)
Molly Whipple

Published on Dec 2, 2013

This is my culminating project for Biology 101. This video describes my experience working with L.E.A.D., facts about the Yellow Archangel, and describes how this invasive plant relates to topics we learned over the quarter including ecology, photosynthesis, and biodiversity. Information on the Yellow Archangel was found from Western's L.E.A.D. website. All other information was collected from Lab/In Class lectures.





Visitor Videos

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Other Videos

  Yellow Archangel - Lamium galeobdolon

Uploaded on Apr 20, 2011 Perennial yellow archangel - Lamium species





Visitor Sightings

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Bill Reynolds

Location: St. Louis County, just south of Canyon Mn off the MacArthur rd

I understand from my research today that is an invasive plant in many areas throughout the US of A. The Yellow Archangel is from Europe and has escaped our garden into our wild environments of Minnesota. I don't recall the exact spot, since I took the photo back in 2006, but the area was just south of Canyon Mn off the MacArthur rd. I know its not a wild flower, but it might good to add for identification purposes, for it took most of my afternoon and help from people at Minnesota Wildflower to identified it.

Though its an escapee, its quite the looker!

yellow archangel






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