yellow archangel

(Lamiastrum galeobdolon)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

yellow archangel

NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

Minnesota

not listed

Nativity

Native to Europe and western Asia. Cultivated and escaped cultivation. Naturalized in parts of North America.

Occurrence

Uncommon

Habitat

Moist. Woodlands. Full to partial shade.

Flowering

April to June

Flower Color

Yellow

Height

6 to 24

          Photo by Bill Reynolds

Identification

This is a 6 to 24 tall perennial forb that rises from a creeping underground stem (rhizome). It spreads by producing creeping above-ground runners (stolons) that root and produce another plant at the nodes. The stolons have large leaves.

The stems are square, and sparsely hairy. They may be erect, lay on the ground with the tip ascending (decumbent), or lay flat on the ground (prostrate).

Stem leaves are opposite, ¾ to 3½ long, and 1.2 to 2 times longer than wide. They are on to 1¼ long leaf stalks. The leaves become smaller and shorter stalked as they ascend the stem. Upper leaves are stalkless. The leaf blades are broadly egg-shaped, straight across to more or less heart-shaped at the base, and taper to a point at the tip with straight or concave sides along the tip. The upper and lower surfaces are sparsely covered with appressed hairs. The upper surface is marked with spots or patches of silver (variegated). The underside is often purplish. The margins are coarsely toothed with rounded or sharp teeth.

The inflorescence is a pair of opposite branched clusters (cymes), at the end of the stem and rising from opposite leaf axils, that form a false whorl (verticillaster). There are usually 4 or 5 verticillasters per plant. Each verticillaster has 2 to 10 flowers.

Each flower is to 1 long. There are 5 sepals, 5 petals, 4 stamens, and 1 style. The sepals are green, ¼ to long, and are fused at the base into a calyx tube then separated at the tip into 5 more or less equal lobes. The petals are bright yellow. They are fused at the base into a slender corolla tube then separated at the tip into 2 widely spreading lips. The corolla tube has a ring of hairs inside and is longer than the calyx tube. The upper lip is hood-like, unlobed, and has long, stiff, spreading hairs on the margin. The lower lip has 3 more or less equally sized lobes with brown markings. The stamens do not extend beyond the hooded upper lip. The style is about as long as the corolla and has 2 lobes at the tip.

The fruit is four egg-shaped nutlets.

 
Similar
Species

 


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 4, 7, 22, 24, 29, 30.


Comments

Subspecies
There are five subspecies of this plant. At least three are found in North America (see Subordinate Taxa below). None are native.


Taxonomy

Family:

Lamiaceae (mint)

 

Subfamily:

Lamioideae

 

Tribe:

Lamieae

 
Subordinate Taxa

yellow archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. argentatum)

yellow archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. flavidum)

yellow archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. montanum var. variegatum)

 
Synonyms

Galeobdolon luteum

Galeopsis galeobdolon

Lamium galeobdolon

 
Common
Names

yellow archangel


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

axil

The upper angle where a branch, stem, leaf stalk, or vein diverges.

 

calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.

 

corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

cyme

A branched, flat-topped or convex flower cluster in which the terminal flower opens first and the outermost flowers open last.

 

node

The small swelling of the stem from which one or more leaves, branches, or buds originate.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

stolon

An above-ground, creeping stem that grows along the ground and produces roots and sometimes new plants at its nodes. A runner.

 

verticillaster

A pair of cymes rising from opposite leaf clusters that creates a false whorl.

       

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Bill Reynolds


Though its an escapee, its quite the looker!

  yellow archangel    

       
       

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Slideshows

   
  Yellow Archangel
Wez Smith
 
  Yellow Archangel  
 
About

Yellow Archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon).

 
     
  BIO 101: Yellow Archangel
Sadie Sullivan
 
   
 
About

Published on Dec 1, 2013

No description available.

 
     
  L.E.A.D. Service Learning (Yellow Archangel)
Molly Whipple
 
   
 
About

Published on Dec 2, 2013

This is my culminating project for Biology 101. This video describes my experience working with L.E.A.D., facts about the Yellow Archangel, and describes how this invasive plant relates to topics we learned over the quarter including ecology, photosynthesis, and biodiversity. Information on the Yellow Archangel was found from Western's L.E.A.D. website. All other information was collected from Lab/In Class lectures.

 
     

 

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Other Videos

 
  Yellow Archangel - Lamium galeobdolon
PrettyWorld2011
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Apr 20, 2011

http://www.InBloomThisWeek.com Perennial yellow archangel - Lamium species

 
     

 

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Visitor Sightings

   
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Bill Reynolds
5/21/2006

Location: St. Louis County, just south of Canyon Mn off the MacArthur rd

I understand from my research today that is an invasive plant in many areas throughout the US of A. The Yellow Archangel is from Europe and has escaped our garden into our wild environments of Minnesota. I don't recall the exact spot, since I took the photo back in 2006, but the area was just south of Canyon Mn off the MacArthur rd. I know its not a wild flower, but it might good to add for identification purposes, for it took most of my afternoon and help from people at Minnesota Wildflower to identified it.

Though its an escapee, its quite the looker!

yellow archangel


     
     
 

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