ground spiders

(Family Gnaphosidae)

Overview
ground spider (Family Gnaphosidae)
Photo by Alfredo Colon
 

Gnaphosidae is a large family of true spiders known as ground spiders. There are 2,583 species of ground spiders in 164 genera worldwide, at least 76 species in 22 genera in North America north of Mexico, and at least 31 species in at least 11 genera in Minnesota. They are found in grasslands on or near the ground, on tree trunks, and under stones.

Neither males nor females construct hunting webs. Both sexes spin tube-shaped retreats under stones, in bark, or in rolled leaves. They are fast runners. They hunt by pursuing their prey on the ground and immobilizing it with a thick, gluey, silk strand.

 
           
 
Description
 
 

Gnaphosidae are medium-sized spiders to (10 to 15 mm) in length. The carapace is oval and usually unmarked. The anterior median eyes are dark. The posterior median eyes are oval and angled. The abdomen is elongated and slightly flattened. On all but one genus, the front spinnerets are tube-shaped and are visible from above. The legs are medium-length, stout, and spiny. All of the legs are about the same length. There are two claws at the tip, but these are not visible without magnification.

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

24, 29, 30, 82.

 
  1/4/2022      
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Class Arachnida (arachnids)  
 

Order

Araneae (spiders)  
 

Suborder

Araneomorphae (true spiders)  
 

Superfamily

Gnaphosoidea  
 

Family

Gnaphosidae (ground spiders)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

Anzacia spp. (patriotic ground spiders)

Callilepis spp.

Camillina spp.

Cesonia spp.

Cladothela spp. (flat-bellied ground spiders)

Drassodes spp.

Drassyllus spp.

Eilica spp.

Epicharitus spp. (banded ground spiders)

Gertschosa spp.

Gnaphosa spp.

Haplodrassus spp.

Herpyllus spp.

Heser spp.

Litopyllus spp.

Micaria spp.

Nodocion spp.

Orodrassus spp.

Prodidomus spp.

Scopoides spp.

Scotophaeus spp.

Sergiolus spp.

Sosticus spp.

Talanites spp.

Trachyzelotes spp.

Urozelotes spp.

Zelotes spp.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Prodidomidae

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

ground spiders

stealthy ground spiders

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
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Alfredo Colon

 
    ground spider (Family Gnaphosidae)      
           
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
 

 

 
           

 

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Other Videos
 
  Gnaphosidae ground spider
VFORVENOM
 
   
 
About

May 5, 2018

Please become a patron to support me.
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Ground spider, feeding video.

 
  Gnaphosidae in work - Novograd Volynskiy Ukraine - 27.04.2017
slotvinskyy
 
   
 
About

Jun 15, 2017

Ground spiders (family Gnaphosidae) include nearly 2,000 described species in over 100 genera, distributed worldwide. This makes the family the seventh largest known. New species are still being discovered. They are closely related to Clubionidae.

Common genera include Gnaphosa, Drassodes, Micaria, Cesonia, Zelotes and many others.

There are 105 species known to central Europe

 
  Gnaphosidae sp. - Egg Sac
Tobias MacRobie
 
   
 
About

Mar 7, 2020

Spotted this in my vivarium just after she finished making the egg sac.

 

 

Camcorder

 
 
Visitor Sightings
 
           
 

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  Alfredo Colon
8/2/2019

Location: Woodbury, MN

ground spider (Family Gnaphosidae)  
           
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
 
 

 

 

 

 

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Created: 1/4/2022

Last Updated:

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