Norman’s quaker

(Crocigrapha normani)

               
Hodges #

10501

Norman’s quaker

 

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Occurrence

Common

Flight/Season

One generation per year: April to June

Habitat/Hosts

Forests, woodlands, and large gardens

Size

Total Length: 11 16 to ¾ (18 to 19 mm)

Wingspan: 15 16 to 19 16 (33 to 40 mm)

         
         
          Photo by Alfredo Colon
 
Identification

Norman’s quaker is an early season, medium-sized owlet moth. It occurs in North America from Quebec to Alberta south to Georgia and Colorado. It is most common in New England and in the Midwest. It is common in Minnesota. Adults are found from April to June. Mature larvae (caterpillars) are found from late April to July on the leaves of many species of deciduous trees, including apple, ash, aspen, birch, cherry, elm, ironwood, maple, oak, plum, and willow; and shrubs including blueberry, hazel, rose, and witch hazel.

Adults are 11 16 to ¾ (18 to 19 mm) long and have a wingspan of 15 16 to 19 16 (33 to 40 mm). The forewings are long. The rear (outer) margin is strongly angled inward from at or near the leading (costal) margin to the inner margin. The ground color is variable, usually dark brown but sometimes reddish-brown, orangish-brown, yellowish-brown, or brownish-gray. There is a large whitish patch at the outer angle, where the costal margin meets the outer margin. The antemedial (AM) line is smooth, slightly curved, and pale in the center with thin dark border above and a broader dark border below. The postmedial (PM) line is strongly curved downward in the middle and upward approaching the inner and costal margins. It is pale in the center with broad dark border above and a thin dark border below. The median area, between the AM and PM lines, is often darker than the ground color. On light individuals, there is no subterminal (ST) line. On dark individuals the ST line is defined by the paler terminal area and the darker subterminal area. The terminal line consists of a line of black dots, one at the end of each cell. There is a circular spot in the median area (orbicular spot) and a kidney-shaped spot at the end of the discal cell (reniform spot). Both spots are bordered with white and are the same color as the ground in the center. The reniform spot has a conspicuous black spot in the inner half.

The hindwings are whitish at the base, gradually darkening approaching the outer margin.

The head and thorax are the same color as the forewings. On the upper side of the thorax there is a tuft of hairs that is inconspicuously divided into a small tuft in front and a large one in the rear. The antennae are threadlike on both the male and the female.

The caterpillar is called climbing cherry cutworm. Late stage (instar) caterpillars are about 1 long and reddish-brown to tannish-brown. They have no stripes and few other distinguishing features. The breathing pores (spiracles) are brown rimmed with black. Sometimes there is a barely distinguishable pale stripe through the spiracular area. The plate on the upper side of the first segment of the thorax (prothoracic shield) is dark brown and shiny above, pale on the sides, and has a pale spot in the middle at the rear. The eighth abdominal segment is somewhat humped and has a pale horizontal line at the rear. The head is brown and shiny, with two dark spots on each side that merge together. Middle and second-to-last (penultimate) instar caterpillars are sharply bi-colored, dark olive green above and creamy white below. The subspiracular area is the darkest. There is a thin longitudinal stripe in the middle (middorsal) and a thin white stripe on each side in the subdorsal area. The head has two dark spots on each side that do not merge together.

 
Similar
Species

 

 
Larval Food

Leaves of deciduous trees, including apple, ash, aspen, birch, cherry, elm, ironwood, maple, oak, plum, and willow; and shrubs including blueberry, hazel, rose, and witch hazel.

 
Adult Food

 

 
Life Cycle

Females lay large, tight clusters (rafts) of eggs on the leaves of host plants. The pupa overwinters.

 
Behavior

Adults are active at night and will come to lights.

 
Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 21, 24, 29, 30, 71, 75.

 
Comments

 

 
Taxonomy

Order:

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)

 

Suborder:

Glossata

 

Infraorder:

Neolepidoptera

 

Parvorder:

Heteroneura

 

No Rank:

Ditrysia

 

No Rank:

Obtectomera

 

Superfamily:

Noctuoidea (noctuid moths)

 

Family:

Noctuidae (owlet moths)

 

Subfamily:

Noctuinae (cutworms or dart moths)

 

Tribe:

Orthosiini

 

Genus:

Crocigrapha

 
Synonyms

Perigrapha normani

 
Common
Names

climbing cherry cutworm (caterpillar)

Norman’s quaker

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Antemedial (AM) line

A thin line separating the basal area and the median area of the forewing of Lepidoptera.

 

Costal margin

The leading edge of the forewing of insects.

 

Instar

The developmental stage of arthropods between each molt; in insects, the developmental stage of the larvae or nymph.

 

Orbicular spot

A circular spot or outline in the inner median area on the forewing of many moths in the Noctuidae family.

 

Postmedial (PM) line

A thin line separating the median area and the postmedial area of the forewing of Lepidoptera.

 

Reniform spot

A kidney-shaped spot or outline in the outer median area near the costal margin on the forewing of many moths of the Noctuidae family.

 

Spiracle

A small opening on the surface of an insect through which the insect breathes.

 

 

 

 

 

       
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Alfredo Colon
       
  Norman’s quaker   Norman’s quaker
       
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  Noctuidae - Crocigrapha normani
Caterpillars of the Allegheny National Forest
 
  Noctuidae - Crocigrapha normani  
 
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Norman's Quaker

 
     

 

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Alfredo Colon
Summer 2018

Location: Woodbury, Minnesota

Norman’s quaker


     
     
 
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Created: 12/13/2019

Last Updated:

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