acorn plum gall wasp

(Amphibolips quercusjuglans)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

acorn plum gall wasp

 

NatureServe

not listed

Minnesota

not listed

Occurrence

Common in the eastern half of the United States, uncommon in Minnesota.

Flight/Season

Winged adults active in the fall

Habitat/Hosts

In Minnesota, only northern red oak

Size

Total Length, Female: ¼

         
          Photo by Luciearl

Identification

This insect is very small for a wasp but very large for a gall wasp.

The female is ¼ in length. The head is large and black, and has a finely wrinkled texture. The antennae are short, stout, and 12-jointed.

The thorax is highly convex and very robust, wider than the head. It is black and has a coarsely wrinkled texture. It is marked with fine longitudinal lines that have the appearance of needle scratches. The lines in front (anterior) are fine and slightly spread apart. The lines near the wing bases are rather long. The plate between the wing bases (scutellum) is cushion-shaped, slightly wider than long, and has a wrinkled texture.

The abdomen is black, and more or less opaque. The upper side is densely covered with tiny pits (punctate). The lower side is shiny, hairy, and not punctate.

The legs are yellowish-brown.

The wings are transparent and dusky, with a brownish area in the middle from the base to the tip.

The male has 15-jointed antennae but is otherwise similar to the female.

Like other cypnid wasps, this species is usually identified by the galls it produces. The galls are formed on the acorn cups of northern red oak in the spring or early summer. When they first appear the galls are small, pink, round, smooth, solid, and fleshy. As the larva grows the gall expands to to 1 in diameter and turns blood red. Old galls are brown, dry, and so hard that they are difficult to cut with a knife. They easily drop off and are often found on the ground.

 
Similar
Species

Spongy oak apple gall wasp (Amphibolips confluenta) galls are on leaves. They sometimes take over the entire leaf and appear to be on the twig.


Larval Food

In Minnesota, only northern red oak (Quercus rubra)

 
Adult Food

Adult wasps do not feed.

 
Life Cycle

The life cycle of this wasp involves alternation of generations, one generation with only asexual females and one generation with both sexual males and sexual females.

After mating in the fall the sexual female wasp drops to the ground. She burrows into the soil at the base of a host tree and injects her eggs into the tree’s roots. These eggs, the first generation embryo stage, overwinter. When they hatch in the early spring, the larvae begin feeding on the roots. Soon they enter the pupal stage, a period of inactivity and metamorphosis. Later, still in the spring, the wingless, asexual female adult hatches and emerges from the soil. She crawls up the tree trunk, finds a developing acorn, and injects a single egg into the cup. She then finds another acorn and repeats the process with her remaining eggs. These eggs are the second generation embryo stage. The egg hatches and the larva begins feeding on the acorn cup. This causes a chemical reaction that results in the formation of a ball-like gall. The galls appear in the late spring or early summer. As the season progresses the larva gets larger and so does the gall. Second-generation, winged, male and female sexual adults emerge in the fall and immediately search out a mate. The cycle continues.

 
Behavior

 


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 24, 27, 30.


Comments

What Causes the Galls?
It was once thought that the gall was caused by a chemical irritant that the female deposits with the egg. It was later learned that gall formation does not commence until the egg hatches or just before it hatches. It is now thought that the gall is a result of the irritating action of the larvae acting on developing plant cells.


Taxonomy

Order:

Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps, and sawflies)

 

Suborder:

Apocrita (ants, bees, true wasps)

 

Infraorder:

Terebrantes

 

Superfamily:

Cynipoidea (gall wasps)

 

Family:

Cynipidae (gall wasps)

 

Subfamily:

Cynipinae

 

Tribe:

Cynipini

 
Synonyms

Amphibolips prunus

Cynips quercusjuglans

Cynips quercusprunus

 
Common
Names

acorn plum gall wasp


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Gall

An abnormal growth on a plant produced in response to an insect larva, mite, bacteria, or fungus.

 

Punctate

Dotted with pits, transluscent sunken glands, or colored spots of pigment.

 

Scutellum

The exoskeletal plate covering the rearward (posterior) part of the middle segment of the thorax in some insects. In Coleoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, the dorsal, often triangular plate behind the pronotum and between the bases of the front wings. In Diptera, the exoskeletal plate between the abdomen and the thorax.

 

 

 

 

 

       

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Luciearl


Acorn Plum Gall

Not sure if there is a category for these, but neat to find them still on the tree. I have only found the Acorn Plum Galls on the ground in the past.

  acorn plum gall wasp   acorn plum gall wasp
       
  acorn plum gall wasp    

       
       
       

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Luciearl
8/11/2018

Location: Fairview Township

Not sure if there is a category for these, but neat to find them still on the tree. I have only found the Acorn Plum Galls on the ground in the past.

acorn plum gall wasp


     
     
 

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