(Solidago spp.)

goldenrod (Solidago sp.)
Photo by Alfredo Colon

Solidago is a genus of perennial, herbaceous, flowering plants called goldenrods. It has a worldwide distribution, occuring on every continent except Antarctica. There are about 100 species of goldenrod worldwide, at least 77 in North America north of Mexico, and 16 in Minnesota. Most are native to North America, 8 are native in Mexico, 4 in South America, and 6 to 10 in Europe and Asia. Most are found in prairies and other open areas, a few are woodland species.

Goldenrods have an undeserved reputation for causing hay fever because they are showy and grow in the same locations and in close proximity to ragweeds.


Goldenrods have composite flower heads with short ray florets and short disk florets. Most rise from underground creeping stems; have leafy, erect or ascending stems; and have yellow corollas.


Distribution Map



2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28, 29, 30.

  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  


Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  


Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)  
  Subfamily Asteroideae  
  Supertribe Asterodae  
  Tribe Astereae (asters and allies)  

Subordinate Taxa


Section Ptarmicoidei

prairie goldenrod (Solidago ptarmicoides)

Riddell’s goldenrod (Solidago riddellii)

stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida)


Section Solidago

Subsection Argutae

rough-leaved goldenrod (Solidago patula)


Subsection Glomeruliflorae

zigzag goldenrod (Solidago flexicaulis)


Subsection Junceae

early goldenrod (Solidago juncea)

Missouri goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis)


Subsection Maritimae

northern bog goldenrod (Solidago uliginosa)


Subsection Nemorales

gray goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis)

velvety goldenrod (Solidago mollis)


Subsection Squarrosae

cliff goldenrod (Solidago sciaphila)

hairy goldenrod (Solidago hispida)

showy goldenrod (Solidago speciosa)


Subsection Triplinerviae

Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)

giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea)

late goldenrod (Solidago altissima)


Subsection Venosae

elm-leaved goldenrod (Solidago ulmifolia var. ulmifolia)




X Solidaster


Common Names











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Nancy Falkum


Golden Rod with Leonard’s Skipper

    goldenrod (Solidago sp.)      

Alfredo Colon

    goldenrod (Solidago sp.)   goldenrod (Solidago sp.)  








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  Nancy Falkum

Location: Kellogg Weaver Dunes SNA, Weaver Dunes Unit

Golden Rod with Leonard’s Skipper

goldenrod (Solidago sp.)  
  Alfredo Colon

Location: Woodbury, Minnesota

goldenrod (Solidago sp.)  






Created: 11/18/2019

Last Updated:

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