two-marked treehopper

(Enchenopa binotata)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

two-marked treehopper

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Occurrence

 

Flight/Season

 

Habitat

 

Size

3 16 to ¼


Identification

This is a small, 3 16 to ¼ long jumping insect. Like other treehoppers, it has the overall appearance of a thorn.

The wings, pronotum, and legs are dark brown. The eyes are brown. The pronotum covers the thorax and abdomen, projects forward like a horn, and is slightly expanded at the tip. It has yellow spots near the center of the dorsal (upper) ridge. The first two pairs of legs are broad and flattened.

 
Similar
Species

 


Nymphal
Hosts

Each of the nine species of this species complex (see Coments below) inhabits a single host plant species. Six species are found in Minnesota: American bittersweet, black locust. black walnut, butternut, common hop-tree, and nannyberry,

 
Adult Food

Adults are often found on non-host plants.

 
Life Cycle

The female deposits her eggs in a mass under the bark of a branch, then covers them with a foamy, white secretion (egg froth). The egg froth contains a chemical that attracts other females and signals them to deposit their eggs. Ten or more egg masses are often deposited on a single branch.

Offspring overwinter as eggs. Eggs hatch the following spring. Nymphs produce sugary secretions that attract ants. Attendance by ants in the late season significantly reduces mortality.

 
Behavior

Adults are often seen in groups on a twig. They are usually in single file with their heads all pointing in the same direction. They puncture the twig and extract the sap.


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 7.


Comments

Taxonomy
This is a species complex, a group of nine species that is identical in appearance (as adults) while remaining reproductively separate. Species evolved to exploit individual host plant species while remaining geographically combined (sympatric speciation). All nine species are referred to by the binomial name Enchenopa binotata.


Taxonomy

Order:

Hemiptera (true bugs, cicadas, hoppers, aphids and allies)

 

No Rank:

Euhemiptera

 

No Rank:

Clypeorrhyncha

 

Suborder:

Auchenorrhyncha (free-living hemipterans)

 

Infraorder:

Cicadomorpha

 

Superfamily:

Membracoidea

 

Family:

Membracidae (treehoppers)

 

Subfamily:

Membracinae

 
Synonyms

Membracis binotata

 
Common
Names

two-marked treehopper

two-spotted treehopper

twomarked treehopper


 

 

 

 

Glossary

Pronotum

The saddle-shaped, exoskeletal plate on the upper side of the first segment of the thorax of an insect.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

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  treehopper (Enchenopa)
Bill Keim
 
  treehopper (Enchenopa)  
     
  Enchenopa binotata (Two-spotted Treehopper)
Allen Chartier
 
  Enchenopa binotata (Two-spotted Treehopper)  

 

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