winter cress

(Barbarea vulgaris)

Conservation Status
winter cress
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FAC - Facultative

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Winter cress is a 8 to 32 tall, erect, biennial or short-lived perennial forb that rises from a stout taproot. In it’s first year it forms a rosette of basal leaves up to 1 across. In the second year it produces one or more flowering stalks. This is one of the first flowers to bloom in spring. It blooms a second time in late autumn.

The stems are erect, angled, and usually unbranched below the inflorescence. They are usually hairless but are sometimes sparsely covered near the base with unbranched, nonglandular hairs.

The leaves are alternate, dark green, hairless, and shiny on the upper surface. Basal leaves are up to 6 long and 2 wide and are attached to the stem with a ¾ to 3 long leaf stalk. They are divided into 1 to 4 pairs of small lateral lobes and a large terminal lobe. The lateral lobes are oblong, two to four times longer than broad with nearly straight sides or egg-shaped and attached at the narrow end. The terminal lobe is considerably larger, egg-shaped or nearly circular. The margins are wavy or bluntly toothed.

Lower stem leaves resemble the basal leaves but are progressively smaller as they ascend the stem. A pair of ear-like basal lobes clasp the main stem.

Upper stem leaves are egg-shaped or nearly circular and may be lobed, toothed, or entire. The margins are strongly wavy or bluntly toothed. They attach to the main stem without a stalk and sometimes clasp the stem at the base. They are not covered with a whitish, waxy coating (glaucous).

The inflorescence is a terminal, branched, elongated, crowded cluster.

The flowers have four yellow petals, are ½ wide, and are stalked.

The fruit is an ascending or spreading, ½ to 1½ long, narrow, curved pod that is roundish in cross-section. The fruits develop below the inflorescence.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

8 to 32

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Yellow

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Early winter cress (Barbarea verna) has basal leaves with 4 to 7 pairs of lateral lobes. It is an eastern and west coast species and does not occur in Minnesota.

Northern winter cress (Barbarea orthoceras) is a native species. The flowers are ¼ wide. The flower stalk is club-like or bat-like in overall shape.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist. Fields, pastures, roadsides, and other disturbed sites.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

April to June, September

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 

Defense Mechanisms

 
 

This and other mustards (family Brassicaceae) produce chemical compounds when cells are damaged that are toxic to most animals, fungi, and bacteria.

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 28.

 
  8/15/2020      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to Northern Africa, Asia and Europe. Introduced and naturalized in the United States.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Subclass Rosidae  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Brassicales (Mustards, Capers, and Allies)  
 

Family

Brassicaceae (mustard)  
  Tribe Cardamineae  
 

Genus

Barbarea (yellow rocket)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

Four varieties have been described but these are not recognized by most authorities.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Barbarea arcuata

Barbarea barbarea

Barbarea stricta

Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata

Barbarea vulgaris var. brachycarpa

Barbarea vulgaris var. longisiliquosa

Barbarea vulgaris var. sylvestris

Barbarea vulgarus arcuata

Barbarea vulgarus brachycarpa

Barbarea vulgarus longisiliquosa

Barbarea vulgarus sylvestris

Campe barbarea

Crucifera barbarea

Erysimum arcuatum

Erysimum barbarea

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

bitter wintercress

common winter cress

garden yellow rocket

garden yellowrocket

garden yellow-rocket

herb-barbaras

rocket cress

winter cress

winter-cress

yellow-rocket

yellow rocket

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Clasping

Describing a leaf that wholly or partly surrounds the stem but does not fuse at the base.

 

Entire

Continuous; not toothed, notched, or lobed.

 

Glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

       
Visitor Photos
   

Share your photo of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more photos and, if you like, a caption.

       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  winter cress   winter cress
       
  winter cress   winter cress
       

Inflorescence

  winter cress   winter cress
       
  winter cress   winter cress
       

Flowers

  winter cress   winter cress
       
  winter cress   winter cress
       
  winter cress    
       

Basal Leaves

  winter cress   winter cress
       

Lower Stem Leaves

  winter cress    
       

Middle Stem Leaves

  winter cress    
       

Upper Stem Leaves

  winter cress   winter cress
       
  winter cress    
       

Fruit

  winter cress   winter cress
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Common Wintercress (Yellow Rocket) (Barbarea vulgaris)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Common Wintercress (Yellow Rocket) (Barbarea vulgaris)  
     
  Garden Yellowrocket (Barbarea vulgaris)
Bill Keim
 
  Garden Yellowrocket (Barbarea vulgaris)  
     
  Barbarea vulgaris YELLOW ROCKET
Frank Mayfield
 
  Barbarea vulgaris  YELLOW  ROCKET  

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       

Share your video of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more videos or YouTube links and, if you like, a caption.

       
       
Other Videos
 
  Bittercress (Barbarea vulgaris) / Herb Barbara - 2014--4-26
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on May 7, 2014

Barbarea vulgaris, also called as Bittercress, Herb Barbara, Rocketcress, Yellow Rocketcress, Winter Rocket, and Wound Rocket, is a biennial herb of the genus Barbarea, belonging to the family Brassicaceae.

------------------

Het gewoon barbarakruid (Barbarea vulgaris) is een plant uit de kruisbloemenfamilie (Cruciferae oftewel Brassicaceae)

Geo location: 51.93414 4.32829

   
       
  wilderness survival Winter cress identification
Kaptalis
 
   
 
About

Published on May 5, 2013

wilderness survival Winter cress identification

   
       
  Winter Cress - Randomness With Reva - Episode 8
Reva McKinney
 
   
 
About

Published on Apr 29, 2013

Winter Cress is found in wet wooded areas, as well as moist fields and meadows. As with all wild edibles, you should be careful to harvest from a clean source. Especially with this plant, because it has a high absorbency to any ground source, so look out for impure water nearby or farmer's fields because of run-off. Also used as a diuretic and appetite stimulant. Some experts claim that it is toxic when ingested, but there are many people that eat this plant and you can find numerous recipes for cooking with it. Also keep in mind to follow the rules of wild foraging, if you can't identify it or do not know how to prepare it, do not eat it.

   
       
  Wild Food: Wintercress
Zombie Preparedness
 
   
 
About

Published on Apr 30, 2013

With all the grocery stores looted, and the dollar stores emptied, not even a Wawa to be had, food becomes a necessity that has to be filled in unorthodox ways.

Wintercress is a member of the Barbarea genus. Being part of the Brassicaceae family it is related to the broccoli, cabbage, and kale cultivars. Both the flowers and the leaves are edible. It grows in the Northeast beginning in mid-April into early summer.

There are 22 species in the genus, so the confusion I had in the field may be explained by that. However, I later found that all the plants I harvested during the filming had all the same leaf features somewhere on the plant.

for comparison sake:

http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2489/2
http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2816/2

More survival information can be found at:

http://www.zombiesurvivalwiki.com
http://zpocprep.blogspot.com/

   
       
  wintercress
coydog outdoors
 
   
 
About

Published on May 1, 2014

in this video i show you a plant that grows all over the place in the early part of spring its an edible and a medicinal plant

   
       

 

Camcorder

         
Visitor Sightings
   

Report a sighting of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Be sure to include a location.

Crystal Boyd
6/2/2013

Location: Pine Bend Bluffs SNA


     
     
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
         

 

 

Binoculars


Last Updated:

About Us | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | © 2021 MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.