willow pinecone gall midge

(Rabdophaga strobiloides)

Conservation Status
willow pinecone gall midge
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

not listed

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Willow pinecone gall midgeis a small fly. Adults are about 3 16 in length.

It is most often identified by the conspicuous and distinctive gall that houses the growing larva. The gall appears at the end of a willow stem. It consists of numerous, stunted, overlapping, loosely appressed, scale-like leaves. In the summer it is green, more or less globular, and densely covered with long, white, matted and tangled, woolly hairs. In the fall the cone turns brown and the shape resembles a pine cone.

 
     
 

Size

 
 

About 3 16 long

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

This is the only midge that forms pinecone-shaped galls at the tips of willow stems.

 
     
 
Habitat and Hosts
 
 

Many species of willow

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Season

 
 

One brood per year in Minnesota

 
     
 

Behavior

 
 

 

 
     
 

Life Cycle

 
 

Adults emerge on warm days in late April or May. The female lays eggs singly on the leaves and stems near the stem tips of a host plant. The egg hatches in early May and the larva crawls to the tip of the stem. It then burrows into the soft tissue at the base of the tip of the shoot. It emits a chemical that causes the shoot tip to develop abnormally. The shoot ceases to elongate and instead produces numerous overlapping leaves that envelope the larva. The loosely overlapping leaves allow up to 31 other species of insects to deposit their eggs, including beetles, moths, sawflies, cypnid wasps, midges, and grasshoppers.

The larva pupates inside the gall and overwinters as a pupa. It produces high levels of glycerin which allows it to survive even harsh winters. In the spring a young midge emerges.

 
     
 

Larva Food

 
 

 

 
     
 

Adult Food

 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

7, 29, 30.

 
  6/2/2021      
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
 

Order

Diptera (gnats, mosquitoes, true flies)  
 

Suborder

Nematocera (long-horned flies)  
 

Infraorder

Bibionomorpha  
 

Superfamily

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats and gall midges)  
 

Family

Cecidomyiidae (gall gnats, gall midges, cécidomyidés)  
 

Subfamily

Cecidomyiinae (gall midges)  
 

Supertribe

Lasiopteridi  
  Tribe Oligotrophini  
 

Genus

Rabdophaga  
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Cecidomyia salicisstrobiloides

Cecidomyia strobiloides

Rabdophaga strobilina

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

willow pinecone gall midge

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Midge

A small fly, somewhat resembling a mosquito, in one of several families in the suborder Nematocera.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
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Habitat

 
    willow pinecone gall midge      
           
 

Gall

 
    willow pinecone gall midge   willow pinecone gall midge  
           
    willow pinecone gall midge   willow pinecone gall midge  
           

 

Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
Willow Pinecone Gall Midge (Rabdophaga strobiloides)
Andree Reno Sanborn
  Willow Pinecone Gall Midge (Rabdophaga strobiloides)  
     

 

slideshow

       
 
Visitor Videos
 
       
 

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Other Videos
 
  Willow Pine Cone Gall ,Griffith Indiana
Christopher Stokes
 
   
 
About

Published on Jul 28, 2013

A variety of insect species induce galls on host plants. Several studies have implicated phytohormones in insect-induced gall formation. However, it has not been determined whether insects can synthesize phytohormones. It has also never been established that phytohormones function in gall tissues. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) were used to analyse concentrations of endogenous cytokinins and the active auxin IAA in the gall-inducing sawfly (Pontania sp.) and its host plant, Salix japonica. Feeding experiments demonstrated the ability of sawfly larvae to synthesize IAA from tryptophan. Gene expression analysis was used to characterize hormonal signalling in galls. Sawfly larvae contain high concentrations of IAA and t-zeatin, and produce IAA from tryptophan. The glands of adult sawflies, the contents of which are injected into leaves upon oviposition and are involved in the initial stages of gall formation, contain an extraordinarily high concentration of t-zeatin riboside. Transcript levels of some auxin- and cytokinin-responsive genes are significantly higher in gall tissue than in leaves. The abnormally high concentration of t-zeatin riboside in the glands strongly suggests that the sawfly can synthesize cytokinins as well as IAA. Gene expression profiles indicate high levels of auxin and cytokinin activities in growing galls.

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  Willow Pine Cone Gall ,Griffith Indiana
Christopher Stokes
 
   
 
About

Published on Jul 23, 2013

sharing what i seen today with you.
if you have some time
please leave a comment below.
and Please Subscribe to my channel

and thank you very much for watching my videos..

pictures of Griffith IN here
http://christopherphoto.blogspot.com/

Visit Griffith Indiana's Nature on facebook
http://www.facebook.com/GriffithIndianasNaturePhotos

join me on Google+
http://plus.google.com/112815794394767726853

Join me on Twitter
http://twitter.com/griffithindiana

 
       

 

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