cabbage white

(Pieris rapae)

Conservation Status
cabbage white
Photo by Tom Baker
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Cabbage white is an exotic, small to medium-sized butterfly. It is native to Europe and Asia. It was introduced into Quebec in the 1860s. It has since become very common and in some areas abundant across North America. It is a crop pest.

The upperside of the wings are white. There is a black spot in the middle of the forewing and a black or blackish wingtip. There is also a black spot near the middle of the leading margin of the hindwing. The female has an additional black spot on the forewing near the inner margin.

The underside of the forewing is white with one (male) or two (female) black spots and a pale yellow wingtip. The underside of the hindwing is uniformly pale yellowish-green or grayish-green.

 
     
 

Size

 
 

Wingspan: 1¾ to 2¼

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Mustard white (Pieris oleracea) has no black spots in the middle of the forewing. The veins on the underside of the hindwing are highlighted with yellowish-green or grayish-green. It is absent in the southern half of Minnesota.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Open or lightly wooded areas; gardens, roadsides, crop lands, urban areas.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Season

 
 

Three broods. Early May to late September.

 
     
 

Behavior

 
 

 

 
     
 

Life Cycle

 
 

Females lay single eggs on the underside of a host leaf. The pupa overwinters as a chrysalis.

 
     
 

Larva Hosts

 
 

Plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) and caper (Capparidaceae) families.

 
     
 

Adult Food

 
 

Flower nectar from mustard, dandelion, red clover, aster, and mint.

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

7, 20, 21, 29, 71.

 
  11/2/2018      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to Europe and Asia. Introduced and widely naturalized in North America.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common to abundant and widespread; crop pest

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
 

Order

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)  
 

Suborder

Glossata  
 

Infraorder

Neolepidoptera  
  Parvorder Heteroneura  
  No Rank Ditrysia  
  No Rank Obtectomera  
 

Superfamily

Papilionoidea (butterflies [excluding skippers])  
 

Family

Pieridae (whites, yellows and sulphurs)  
 

Subfamily

Pierinae (whites)  
 

Tribe

Pierini  
  Subtribe Pierina  
 

Genus

Pieris  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

cabbage white (Pieris rapae atomaria)

cabbage white (Pieris rapae crucivora)

cabbage white (Pieris rapae eumorpha)

cabbage white (Pieris rapae leucosoma)

cabbage white (Pieris rapae mauretanica)

cabbage white (Pieris rapae napi)

cabbage white (Pieris rapae novangliae)

cabbage white (Pieris rapae orientalis)

cabbage white (Pieris rapae rapae)

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

cabbage butterfly

cabbage white

imported cabbageworm (larva)

small cabbage white

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Chrysalis

The pupa (third) stage of a butterfly or moth during which the caterpillar metamorphoses into an adult. In moths, the pupa is enclosed in a silk cocoon. In butterflies, the pupa is naked but protected by a hardened outer shell.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
Visitor Photos
 
           
 

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Tom Baker

 
    cabbage white   cabbage white  
           
    cabbage white   cabbage white  
           
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
    cabbage white   cabbage white  
           
    cabbage white      
           
 

Female

 
    cabbage white   cabbage white  
           

 

Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
Cabbage White
DianesDigitals
  Cabbage White  
 
About

Copyright DianesDigitals

European Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris rapae

 
Pieris rapae (Cabbage White)
Allen Chartier
  Pieris rapae (Cabbage White)  
Cabbage White
Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren
  Cabbage White  
     

 

slideshow

       
 
Visitor Videos
 
       
 

Share your video of this insect.

 
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Other Videos
 
  Cabbagewhite Butterfly --Pieris rapae-- Life Cycle
FastPlants
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Dec 13, 2011

Pieris rapae, also known as the Cabbagewhite or Brassica butterfly, completes its entire life cycle in this minimally-narrated video. Pieris rapae raised along with Wisconsin Fast Plants provide a rich example of interdependence and interrelatedness among organisms who share a habitat. For open access lessons and additional information about Pieris, visit the Wisconsin Fast Plant Program's website at www.fastplants.org and search our digital library under the "Activities" tab.

 
  Cabbage White Butterfly (Pieridae: Pieris rapae) Female on Leaf
Carl Barrentine
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Aug 6, 2011

Photographed on the Wisconsin side of the Mississippi River north of Red Wing, Minnesota (04 August 2011). Thank you to Kelly Fiegle (@Bugguide.net) for confirming the identity and identifying the sex of this specimen!

 
  Pieris rapae - gdoremi.altervista.org
www.gdoremi.altervista.org
 
   
 
About

Published on Jan 3, 2013

Comunissima farfalla della famiglia delle Pieirdae

 
  Cabbage White Butterfly
mylensview
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Oct 8, 2011

Cabbage White Butterfly common in all North America

 
       

 

Camcorder

 
 
Visitor Sightings
 
           
 

Report a sighting of this insect.

 
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Be sure to include a location.
 
   

 

   
           
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
 
 

Agassiz Dunes SNA

Anna Gronseth Prairie

Avon Hills Forest SNA, North Unit

Baker Park Reserve

Belgium Prairie

Bertram Chain of Lakes Regional Park

Big Stone Lake State Park

Blazing Star Prairie Addition, South Unit

Boot Lake SNA

Buffalo River State Park

Butterwort Cliffs SNA

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Cedar Rock SNA

Chamberlain Woods SNA

Cherry Grove Blind Valley SNA

Cleary Lake Regional Park

Compass Prairie SNA

Crow Wing State Park

Des Moines River SNA

Elm Creek Park Reserve

Felton Prairie SNA, Bicentennial Unit

Forestville/Mystery Cave State Park

Fort Ridgely State Park

Foxhome Prairie

French Regional Park

Glendalough State Park

Gneiss Outcrops SNA

Grey Cloud Dunes SNA

Hayes Lake State Park

Holthe Prairie SNA

Hyland Lake Park Reserve

Hythecker Prairie SNA

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Itasca State Park

John Murtaugh Memorial WMA

Kettledrummer Prairie

Kilen Woods State Park

Lake Shetek State Park

Langhei Prairie SNA

Lutsen SNA

Minnesota Valley NWR, Long Meadow Lake Unit

Minnesota Valley NWR, Rapids Lake Unit

Minnesota Valley NWR, Wilkie Unit

Mound Spring Prairie SNA, South Unit

Murphy-Hanrehan Park Reserve

Myre-Big Island State Park

Old Mill State Park

Oronoco Prairie SNA

Osmundson Prairie SNA

Pembina Trail Preserve SNA, Crookston Prairie Unit

Pin Oak Prairie SNA

Prairie Creek WMA, Koester Prairie Unit

Prairie Smoke Dunes SNA

Red Rock Prairie

Regal Meadow

Rice Lake State Park

Richard M. & Mathilde Rice Elliott SNA

River Terrace Prairie SNA

St. Croix Savanna SNA

Sandpiper Prairie SNA

Santee Prairie SNA

Savage Fen SNA

Seven Sisters Prairie

Sibley State Park

Split Rock Creek State Park

Spring Beauty Northern Hardwoods SNA

Spring Lake Park Reserve

Swedes Forest SNA

Town Hall Prairie

Tribute WMA

Twin Valley WMA

Tympanuchus Prairie

Uncas Dunes SNA

Upper Sioux Agency State Park

Vermillion River WMA

Whitetail Woods Regional Park

Whitewater State Park

Wild River State Park

William O’Brien State Park

Woodbury WMA

Zimmerman Prairie

Zumbro Falls Woods SNA

 

 

 

Binoculars


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