Jack-in-the-pulpit

(Arisaema triphyllum)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

Jack-in-the-pulpit

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FAC - Facultative

Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Common

Habitat

Moist to moderate moisture. Woods. Partial sun to shade.

Flowering

April to June

     
Flower Color

Yellow

     
Height

12 to 36

     

Identification

This is a 12 to 36 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a corm with secondary roots.

There is no central stem.

Usually 2 leaves, sometimes just 1, rarely 3 rise from the corm on long, erect stalks that reach 24 by the time the plant is in full flower. The leaves are divided into 3, rarely 5, more or less stalkless leaflets. The leaflets are 2½ to 8 long, 1¼ to 5½ wide, and taper gradually to a point at the tip with concave sides along the tip. There is a prominent midvein originating from the base of the leaf and extending to the tip, and up to 10 or more prominent, parallel, lateral veins branching pinnately off the midvein. The lateral veins curve abruptly toward the leaf tip before reaching the margin, and join together in a marginal vein. The angle formed between the midvein of the terminal leaflet and either lateral leaflet is 90° or less.

The upper surface is medium to dark green and hairless. The lower surface is paler green, hairless, and covered with a whitish, waxy coating (glaucous). The margins are untoothed. The terminal leaflet is egg-shaped or broadly diamond-shaped. The lateral leaflets are distinctly asymmetrical and smaller than the terminal leaflet.

A single flower stalk (peduncle) rises from the corm with the leaves. The peduncle is shorter than the leaf stalks.

The inflorescence is a spike with tiny flowers crowded on a thickened axis (spadix). The spadix is yellow, 1 to 3½ tall, blunt-tipped, and club-shaped, tapering slightly from a narrower base to a broader tip. A leaf-like bract (spathe) forms a tube surrounding the spadix. It is expanded near the tip forming a long, tapering hood that covers the spadix and tube. The hood opens at maturity, exposing half of the spadix. The spathe is green, often with purple stripes.

The male flowers are located above the female flowers on the lower half of the spadix. The upper part of the spadix has no flowers.

The fruit is a nearly spherical, 1 5 to ¼ long, red berry with 1 to 3 seeds, borne in a tight cluster up to 2 long.

 
Similar
Species

Trilliums (Trillium spp.) look similar when no flower or fruit is present. They can be distinguished from Jack-in-the-pulpit by the veins on the leaves. Trillium leaves have 5 prominent veins originating from the base of the leaf and extending to the tip. The lateral veins form a network. The angle formed between the midvein of the terminal leaflet and either lateral leaflet is greater than 90° (obtuse).


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Araceae (Arum)

 

Subfamily:

Aroideae

 

Tribe:

Arisaemateae

 
Synonyms

Arisaema acuminatum

Arisaema atrorubens

Arisaema pusillum

Arisaema quinatum

Arisaema stewardsonii

Arisaema triphyllum ssp. pusillum

Arisaema triphyllum ssp. quinatum

Arisaema triphyllum var. stewardsonii

Arisaema triphyllum ssp. stewardsonii

Arisaema triphyllum ssp. triphyllum

 
Common
Names

Indian jack in the pulpit

Indian turnip

Jack in the Pulpit

Jack-in-the-pulpit


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

corm

A short, solid, vertical, thickened, underground stem that serves as a storage organ.

 

glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

 

peduncle

The stalk of a single flower or flower cluster.

 

pinnately veined

With the veins arranged like the vanes of a feather; a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side.

 

spadix

A spike with small flowers crowded on a thickened, fleshy axis, usually enclosed in a spathe.

 

spathe

One or two large bracts that subtend, hood, or sometimes envelope a flower or flower cluster, as with a Jack-in-the-pulpit.

       

Visitor Photos

   
Share your photo of this plant.

Wayne Rasmussen


  Jack-in-the-pulpit    

       
       
       

MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos

   

Plant

  Jack-in-the-pulpit   Jack-in-the-pulpit
       

Flower

  Jack-in-the-pulpit    
       

Leaves

  Jack-in-the-pulpit   Jack-in-the-pulpit
       

Infructescence

  Jack-in-the-pulpit   Jack-in-the-pulpit
       
       

 

Camera

     

Slideshows

   
  Jack In The Pulpit
DianesDigitals
 
  Jack In The Pulpit  
 
About

Copyright DianesDigitals

 
     
  Arisaema triphyllum
Butler Herbarium
 
  Arisaema triphyllum  
     
  Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum var.)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum var.)  
     
  Arisaema atrorubens (Jack-in-the-Pulpit)
Allen Chartier
 
  Arisaema atrorubens (Jack-in-the-Pulpit)  

 

slideshow

     

Visitor Videos

   
Share your video of this plant.

     
     

Other Videos

 
  Jack in the Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)
colong7034
 
   
 
About

Published Sep 25, 2013

Development of Jack in the Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) from flowers to berries. Transylvania County, NC. Flowers shot late May, early June 2013; Berries shot late August through september 2013.

 
     
  MyNature Apps; Identifying Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum
MyNatureApps
 
   
 
About

Uploaded May 29, 2011

How to identify Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum also known as Bog onion, Brown dragon, Indian turnip, Wake robin or Wild turnip. www.mynatureapps.com

 
     
  Jack in the Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)
wvoutdoorman
 
   
 
About

Published on Apr 9, 2012

Jack in the Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)

 
     

 

Camcorder

         

Visitor Sightings

   
Share your sighting of this plant.

Wayne Rasmussen
5/31/2016

Location: Nerstrand Big Woods State Park

Jack-in-the-pulpit


Crystal Boyd
6/2/2013

Location: Pine Bend Bluffs SNA


     
     
 

MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings

   

Avon Hills Forest SNA
North Unit

Baker Park Reserve

Banning State Park

Camden State Park

Cannon River Trout Lily SNA

Cannon River Wilderness Area

Carley State Park

Carpenter St. Croix Valley Nature Center

Carver Park Reserve

Cedar Mountain SNA

Chamberlain Woods SNA

Charles A. Lindbergh State Park

Cherry Grove Blind Valley SNA

Chimney Rock SNA

Clear Lake SNA

Cleary Lake Regional Park

Crosby Farm Regional Park

Crow Wing State Park

Crow-Hassan Park Reserve

Crystal Spring SNA

Elm Creek Park Reserve

Falls Creek SNA

Father Hennepin State Park

Flandrau State Park

Forestville/Mystery Cave State Park

Fort Ridgely State Park

Franconia Bluffs SNA

French Regional Park

Frontenac State Park

Glacial Lakes State Park

Glendalough State Park

Great River Bluffs State Park

Greenleaf Lake SRA

Hardscrabble Woods / MG Tusler Sanctuary

Hastings SNA

Hemlock Ravine SNA

Hyland Lake Park Reserve

Itasca State Park

Itasca Wilderness Sanctuary SNA

John A. Latsch State Park

Kasota Prairie SNA

Kilen Woods State Park

King’s and Queen’s Bluff SNA

Lake Carlos State Park

Lake Louise State Park

Lake Maria State Park

Lake Rebecca Park Reserve

Lebanon Hills Regional Park

Leif Mountain

Liable Woods

Maplewood State Park

Margherita Preserve-Audubon Prairie

Mary Schmidt Crawford Woods SNA

Mille Lacs Kathio State Park

Mille Lacs WMA

Minneopa State Park

Minnesota Valley NWR
Black Dog Preserve Unit

Minnesota Valley State Recreation Area
Lawrence Unit

Monson Lake State Park

Moose Lake State Park

Murphy-Hanrehan Park Reserve

Myre-Big Island State Park

Nelson Wildlife Sanctuary

Nerstrand Big Woods State Park

Oxbow Park & Zollman Zoo

Partch Woods SNA

Paul Bunyan Savanna

Pin Oak Prairie SNA

Pine Bend Bluffs SNA

Prairie Bush Clover SNA

Prairie Creek Woods SNA

Quarry Park SNA

Rice Lake State Park

River Warren Outcrops SNA

Robert Ney Memorial Park Reserve

Rushford Sand Barrens SNA

St. Croix State Park

Sakatah Lake State Park

Savage Fen SNA

Savanna Portage State Park

Scenic State Park

Sedan Brook SNA

Sibley State Park

Spring Lake Park Reserve

Stanley Eddy Memorial Park Reserve

Sunfish Lake Park

Townsend Woods SNA

Twin Lakes SNA

Upper Sioux Agency State Park

Whitetail Woods Regional Park

Whitewater State Park

Whitney Island SNA

Wild River State Park

William O’Brien State Park

Wolsfeld Woods SNA

Wood-Rill SNA

Woodland Trails Park


 

 

Binoculars

Last Updated:

About Us | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | © 2017 MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.