(Arisaema triphyllum)

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed



N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked


not listed


Great Plains

FAC - Facultative


FACW - Facultative wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative






Moist to moderate moisture. Woods. Partial sun to shade.


April to June

Flower Color



12 to 36



This is a 12 to 36 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a corm with secondary roots.

There is no central stem.

Usually 2 leaves, sometimes just 1, rarely 3 rise from the corm on long, erect stalks that reach 24 by the time the plant is in full flower. The leaves are divided into 3, rarely 5, more or less stalkless leaflets. The leaflets are 2½ to 8 long, 1¼ to 5½ wide, and taper gradually to a point at the tip with concave sides along the tip. There is a prominent midvein originating from the base of the leaf and extending to the tip, and up to 10 or more prominent, parallel, lateral veins branching pinnately off the midvein. The lateral veins curve abruptly toward the leaf tip before reaching the margin, and join together in a marginal vein. The angle formed between the midvein of the terminal leaflet and either lateral leaflet is 90° or less.

The upper surface is medium to dark green and hairless. The lower surface is paler green, hairless, and covered with a whitish, waxy coating (glaucous). The margins are untoothed. The terminal leaflet is egg-shaped or broadly diamond-shaped. The lateral leaflets are distinctly asymmetrical and smaller than the terminal leaflet.

A single flower stalk (peduncle) rises from the corm with the leaves. The peduncle is shorter than the leaf stalks.

The inflorescence is a spike with tiny flowers crowded on a thickened axis (spadix). The spadix is yellow, 1 to 3½ tall, blunt-tipped, and club-shaped, tapering slightly from a narrower base to a broader tip. A leaf-like bract (spathe) forms a tube surrounding the spadix. It is expanded near the tip forming a long, tapering hood that covers the spadix and tube. The hood opens at maturity, exposing half of the spadix. The spathe is green, often with purple stripes.

The male flowers are located above the female flowers on the lower half of the spadix. The upper part of the spadix has no flowers.

The fruit is a nearly spherical, 1 5 to ¼ long, red berry with 1 to 3 seeds, borne in a tight cluster up to 2 long.


Trilliums (Trillium spp.) look similar when no flower or fruit is present. They can be distinguished from Jack-in-the-pulpit by the veins on the leaves. Trillium leaves have 5 prominent veins originating from the base of the leaf and extending to the tip. The lateral veins form a network. The angle formed between the midvein of the terminal leaflet and either lateral leaflet is greater than 90° (obtuse).

Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28.





Araceae (Arum)








Arisaema acuminatum

Arisaema atrorubens

Arisaema pusillum

Arisaema quinatum

Arisaema stewardsonii

Arisaema triphyllum ssp. pusillum

Arisaema triphyllum ssp. quinatum

Arisaema triphyllum var. stewardsonii

Arisaema triphyllum ssp. stewardsonii

Arisaema triphyllum ssp. triphyllum


Indian jack in the pulpit

Indian turnip

Jack in the Pulpit













A short, solid, vertical, thickened, underground stem that serves as a storage organ.



Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.



The stalk of a single flower or flower cluster.


Pinnately veined

With the veins arranged like the vanes of a feather; a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side.



A spike with small flowers crowded on a thickened, fleshy axis, usually enclosed in a spathe.



One or two large bracts that subtend, hood, or sometimes envelope a flower or flower cluster, as with a Jack-in-the-pulpit.


Visitor Photos

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Wayne Rasmussen



MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos



  Jack-in-the-pulpit   Jack-in-the-pulpit




  Jack-in-the-pulpit   Jack-in-the-pulpit


  Jack-in-the-pulpit   Jack-in-the-pulpit





  Jack In The Pulpit
  Jack In The Pulpit  

Copyright DianesDigitals

  Arisaema triphyllum
Butler Herbarium
  Arisaema triphyllum  
  Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum var.)
Andree Reno Sanborn
  Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum var.)  
  Arisaema atrorubens (Jack-in-the-Pulpit)
Allen Chartier
  Arisaema atrorubens (Jack-in-the-Pulpit)  




Visitor Videos

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Other Videos

  Jack in the Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)

Published Sep 25, 2013

Development of Jack in the Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) from flowers to berries. Transylvania County, NC. Flowers shot late May, early June 2013; Berries shot late August through september 2013.

  MyNature Apps; Identifying Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum

Uploaded May 29, 2011

How to identify Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum also known as Bog onion, Brown dragon, Indian turnip, Wake robin or Wild turnip. www.mynatureapps.com

  Jack in the Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)

Published on Apr 9, 2012

Jack in the Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)





Visitor Sightings

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Wayne Rasmussen

Location: Nerstrand Big Woods State Park


Crystal Boyd

Location: Pine Bend Bluffs SNA


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